Intro to computer

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Intro to computer af Mind Map: Intro to computer

1. COMPUTER

1.1. Accept data (input)

1.2. Process the input (process)===>useful information===>instructions

1.3. Stores the instructions and results (storage)

1.4. Produce information (output)

2. Elements of computer

2.1. Architecture

2.1.1. Attributes that are visible to the programmer (e.g: instructions techniques,i/o mechanism)

2.2. Organization

2.2.1. How features are implemented (e.g: control signal, interface, mem. Tech)

2.3. All intel x86 family have same basic

2.4. IBM system/370 have same basic

3. Structure is the way components relate to each other

3.1. Top level

3.1.1. CPU -Perform data processing and control operation of comp.

3.1.1.1. Registers -Provides internal storage to CPU

3.1.1.2. Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) -Perform data processing function

3.1.1.3. Control unit -Control the operation of CPU

3.1.1.4. Internal CPU interconnection -Provides communication to ALU, registers n control unit

3.1.2. Main memory -Stores data

3.1.3. Input/output -move data between computer n external environment

3.1.4. System interconnection -Provides communication ==>CPU==>main memory==>I/O

4. 4 Basic Function perform by comp. System

4.1. Data processing

4.2. Data storage

4.3. Data movement

4.4. Control

5. Determine program performance?

5.1. Algorithm -By num of operations executed

5.2. Programming language, compiler, architecture -By num. Of machine instructions executed PER OPERATION

5.3. Processor and memory system -By how fast instructions are executed

5.4. I/O system (including OS) -By how fast I/O operations are executed

6. Level of program code

6.1. High level language (HLL) - Abstraction closer to problem domain - For productivity n portability

6.2. Assembly language - Textual representation

6.3. Hardware representation - Binary digits (bits) - Use for encoded instructions and data

7. Behind a computer program?

7.1. App. Software ==> written in HLL

7.2. System Software

7.2.1. Compiler ==> translate HLL code to machine code

7.2.2. Operating system

7.2.2.1. Handling input/output

7.2.2.2. Managing memory and storage

7.2.2.3. Scheduling tasks & sharing resources

7.2.3. Hardware ==> processor,memory,I/O controllers

8. Inside the processor

8.1. Datapath - Perform operations on data

8.2. Control - Tell datapath, memory n i/o devices what to do using program instructions

8.3. Cache memory - Small fast SRAM memory for immediate access to data