System Architectue

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System Architectue af Mind Map: System Architectue

1. Von Neumann Architecture

1.1. Central Processing Unit (CPU)

1.1.1. Where the data processing takes place

1.2. Registers

1.2.1. Accumulator Contains the results of an arithmetic or logic problem

1.2.2. Program Counter Contains the addresss of the next instruction to be executer Increases by one every time an instruction is fetched

1.2.3. Memory Address Register (MAR) Holds the memory location (address) of the data that needs to be accessed

1.2.4. Memory Data Register (MDR) Hold the data that is being transferred to and from the memory

1.2.5. Current Instruction Register Contains the current instruction during processing

1.3. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

1.3.1. Performs arithmetic and logical operations addition and subtraction Logical tests using logic gates multiplication and division number comparisons

1.4. Control Unit (CU)

1.4.1. Coordinates the actions of the computer Sends control signals to other parts of the CPU and the computer system

1.4.2. Clock Sends pulses to other components to coordinate their activities Ensures instructions are carried out and completed Clock speed is measured in cycles per seconds (Hz)

1.4.3. Decoder Decodes the program instructions that have been brought from the memory Sends control signals to other components to carry out the instructions

1.5. Cache

1.5.1. Small amount of memory that sits on top of the CPU

1.5.2. Temporarily holds instructions and data that the CPU will reuse

1.6. Buses

1.6.1. A collection of wires that carry signals between various components of the computer system e.g. the control unit sends instructions to other components via a bus

1.6.2. Address Bus Sends a memory address from the CPU to the memory

1.6.3. Data Bus Sends the actual data to and from memory

1.6.4. Control Bus Carries signals that control all the activity in a computer

2. Performance Factors

2.1. Cache Size

2.1.1. The more cache there is, the more data can be stored closer to the CPU

2.1.2. The more cache there is, the faster instructions can be fetched

2.2. Clock Speed

2.2.1. Increasing your clockspeed to make your computer run faster is called overclocking

2.2.2. Increasing the clock speed increases the processing speed

2.3. Number of Cores

2.3.1. Multiple cores allows the computer to have more power to run more than one program at the same time

2.3.2. Dual core - 2 cores

3. Systems

3.1. Computer System

3.2. Embedded System

3.2.1. A computer system which is built into a device

3.2.2. Limited to a certain number of tasks

3.2.3. E.g. washing machine

3.2.4. E.g. microwave

3.3. Input Devices

3.3.1. Mouse

3.3.2. Keyboard

3.4. Output Devices

3.4.1. Display screens

3.4.2. Projectors

4. Fetch-Decode-Execute Cycle

4.1. FETCH

4.1.1. The Program Counter hold the address of the instruction to be fetched

4.1.2. The instruction address is copied from the Program Counter to the Memory Access Register via the address bus

4.1.3. The instructions held at the address (the data) is then copied to the Memory Data Register via the data bus

4.1.4. The Program Counter increases by one

4.1.5. The data is trnsferred to the Current Instruction Register


4.2.1. The data is decoded by the Control Unit


4.3.1. The data is executed by the Control Unit by sending out signals to other components in the computer via the control bus