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Metaphysics by Mind Map: Metaphysics

1. Perspectives:

1.1. Dualist - Combining both the ideas of an idealist and a materialist

1.1.1. Idealist - Mind: Everything is perceived by the mind, everything else is relative Materialist - Body: Everything Around us is made up of matter. Reality is defined by matter, nothing else. John Locke Hobbes Aristotle Berkeley Plato

1.1.2. Descartes

1.2. Stage 1: Materialist or Immaterialist

1.3. Stage 2: Socrates Plato Aristotle

1.4. Stage 3: Dualist, Materialist, Idealist

2. Question of Free Will

2.1. Does Not Exist

2.1.1. Theological Challenge

2.1.2. Logical Challenge Law of Non-Contradiction; Law I’d Excluded Middle; You will eat an apple or you won’t. Nothing between now and then will change the fact that you are eating an apple.

2.1.3. Scientific Determinism Every event has a cause. Theory of Universal Causality.

2.1.4. If God can foresee the future, then it must be laid out, and therefore we cannot change it

2.2. Does Exist

2.2.1. Response to Theological Foreknowledge does not equal predestined. A may or may not be B.

2.2.2. Response to Logical Okham’s Razor; most believe it does exist, therefore it probably does

2.2.3. Libertarians Reject universal causality; free will is an event without a cause, and happens frequently

2.2.4. Compatibilists Accept that every event has a cause; take issue with scientific world view; cause can originate within the body

2.2.5. Agency Theory Every event has cause; but not all interconnected. Agent possesses capacity to make decisions.

2.3. Adjustment Bureau

2.3.1. Elise, David - Matt Damon, Charlie - Bad Guy, Harry - Good Bad Guy

2.4. Are lives pre determined? Are we able to freely choose our actions without any outside influences? This sub-unit discusses the theories behind the different perspectives.

3. Question of Deity

3.1. Tradition concepts of God

3.1.1. 1. God as Transcendent

3.1.2. 2. God as immanent

3.1.3. 3. God as totally immanent (God is everything)

3.1.4. 4. God as Universal spirit

3.1.5. 5. God as process

3.1.6. 6. God as Transcendent creator

3.1.7. 7. God as unknown object of faith

3.1.8. 8. God as moral

3.2. Positions

3.2.1. Agnostic = Unsure regarding a higher power

3.2.2. Theist = Know that a higher power exists Humanity is spiritual, life has purpose

3.2.3. Atheist = Know that a higher power does not exist Humanity is biological, everything is relative, no reward for good behaviour

3.3. Problem of Evil

3.3.1. If God is all good, then why does evil exist in our world? Three possible answers; he doesn’t care, he can’t do anything about it, he doesn’t know Theists believe that God let’s us choose our own paths, and therefore it is our doing and only the goodness of God letting us be free creatures that evil exists

3.4. Faith Vs Science

3.5. Is there a higher power? This sub-unit explores this question from different metaphysical perspectives.

4. Question of Reality

4.1. The Simulation Argument - Nick Bostrom

4.2. The Matrix

4.2.1. Now, Morpheus, Trinity, Agent Smith, Cypher

4.3. The Experience Machine - Would you hook yourself up?

4.4. Theory of Forms - Plato

4.4.1. There are two worlds. The world of being, and the world of becoming. The world of being is essentially a perfect world, whereas the world of becoming is the world in which persons live.

4.4.2. Aristotle’s Response: Not plausible : Substance Essence Rejected Plato’s forms, stating that there is only one true real world. Envisioned the universe as a gigantic organism.

4.5. Locke

4.5.1. Some information we perceive is subjective. Hobbes Response The object does not exist apart from our perception of it.

4.6. Perspectives

4.6.1. Idealist What is real is confined to our perception

4.6.2. Materialist What is real is confined to the matter around us

4.6.3. Dualist Both perception and matter make up reality

4.7. Bundle Theory - David Hume: No actual objects, everything is simply a figment of the mind; features

5. Question of Personhood

5.1. Dualism: Mind + Body

5.2. Monism: Mind OR Body

5.3. Machines - Are They People?

5.3.1. Transcendence Will, Max, Evelyn

5.3.2. Chinese Room Just because something produces a correct response does not mean it is knowledgeable or a person • John Searle

5.3.3. Turing Test A test that challenges humans to detect another human from a computer/machine • Alan Turing

5.3.4. What is real? This sub-unit uncovers the perspectives that lay behind this metaphysical question.

5.4. Key Components of Personhood

5.4.1. Consciousness, DNA, Mind, Body

5.5. Ken Parks: Sleepwalking Murderer

5.6. Abortion

5.6.1. Judith Jarvis Johnson

5.6.2. Catholic Church

5.7. Can animals be considered persons?

5.7.1. Quebec bill calls animals sentient

5.8. What exactly is a person? What is the difference between a human and a person? This sub-unit dives deep into the philosophical positions on this question.

5.9. Julian Baggini

5.10. Latimer Case

5.11. Soul Study

5.11.1. Aristotle: Soul only exists while alive

5.11.2. Descartes/Plato: Soul is immortal/exists before body

5.12. Personal identity = the same as consciousness according to Locke

6. Question of Life

6.1. Theories of Happiness

6.1.1. 1. Theory of Lower Gaze - not satisfied until desires are fulfilled

6.1.2. 2. Theory of Indifferent Universe - The universe is as it is; little things do not matter

6.1.3. 3. Theory of Silver Lining - Focus in the positives in life

6.2. Perspectives

6.2.1. Psych Hedonism: People are always our to seek own pleasure and avoid pain

6.2.2. Moral Hedonism: People have a duty to maximize their own pleasure and avoid pain

6.2.3. Altruism: The practice of unselfish devotion for the pleasure of others

6.2.4. Utilitarianism: The best action is that which maximizes utility

6.3. People

6.3.1. Mark Kingwell Concludes that Aristotle’s Definition is the best; a thing is best understand by looking at its end, purpose or goal. So to achieve happiness, we first have to discover our goal. ; Key Question: What is the life worth living?

6.3.2. Thich Naht Hunh For a happy life we need to be free of bindings

6.3.3. John Stuart Mill Happiness is the absence of pain and the abundance of pleasure

6.3.4. James Rachels Happiness is never sought for its own sake

6.3.5. Neil Pasricha Attitude : approaching ups/downs in life , Awareness: experience world, Authenticity: behind you 3 A’s: Attitude, Awareness, Authenticity

6.3.6. Ayn Rand Self has come to mean evil. Our highest moral achievement of life is our own happiness.

6.4. “The unexamined life is not worth living” - Socrates

6.5. Myths about happiness

6.5.1. 1. It’s easy

6.5.2. 2. You can buy it

6.5.3. 3. It’s simplicity

6.5.4. 4. Immoral

6.5.5. 5. Madness

6.5.6. 6. Elsewhere

6.5.7. 7. Birthright

6.5.8. 8. Is fixed

6.6. What is the meaning of life? This sub-unit encounters the perspectives associated with this question.

6.7. Plato parts of soul

6.7.1. Appetite

6.7.2. Reason

6.7.3. Spirit