Human Environment Geography

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Human Environment Geography by Mind Map: Human Environment Geography

1. Approaches

1.1. Eccocentric

1.2. Constructivist

1.3. Holistic

2. Environmentalism

2.1. Early 1900's

2.1.1. Urbanization

2.1.2. Romanticizing the wilderness

2.1.3. Preservation

2.1.4. Awareness of over exploitation

2.2. 1960's + 70's

2.2.1. Middle class support

2.2.2. Downside of economic growth

2.2.3. First Earth Day on April 22nd !970

2.2.4. UN conference on human environment in 1972

2.2.4.1. Ignorance

2.2.4.2. lack of technical expertise

2.2.4.3. population growth

2.3. 2000's and Beyond

2.3.1. Climate change

2.3.2. Food, agriculture, energy efficiency

2.3.3. To eat or not to eat organic

2.3.4. Impact on farmers in developing countries

2.4. Sustainable Development

2.4.1. "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs"

2.4.2. Economic growth and development not necessarily at odds

2.4.3. Biological diversity

2.4.4. "Green Imperialism"

2.4.5. 2 viewpoints

2.4.5.1. Human needs paramount, development must adapt

2.4.5.2. Development and environmental stewardship is complimentary

3. Biophysical environment

3.1. Terra Preta Soil

3.1.1. Fertile man-made soil found in the Amazon basin

3.1.2. Pre-Columbian Soils dating back to 450 BC to 950 AD

3.1.3. Biochar - charcoal produced from plant matter

3.2. Physical Geography

3.2.1. The study of the Earth

3.2.2. Not just about "where" but also "why"

3.2.3. Definition of geography: what is where and why is it there?

3.3. Four Realms

3.3.1. Hydrosphere

3.3.1.1. All of the waters on the Earth

3.3.2. Atmosphere

3.3.2.1. Gases that surround the Earth

3.3.3. Lithosphere

3.3.3.1. Rigid outer part of the Earth consisting of the crust and upper mantle

3.3.4. Biosphere

3.3.4.1. Regions of the Earth occupied by all living organisms

3.3.4.2. Biogeography

3.3.4.2.1. Study of the patterns and relationships in the biotic environment

3.3.4.3. Ecology

3.3.4.3.1. Branch of biology that deals with relations of organisms to one another and their physical surroundings

3.4. Albedo

3.4.1. Fraction of the received solar radiation that is reflected by a surface

3.4.2. Ice/snow absorbs while water reflects

3.4.3. Darker surfaces will absorb more, lighter surfaces will reflect more

3.5. Dew point

3.5.1. Saturated air

3.5.2. Hot air can hold a lot of moisture

4. Environmental History

4.1. Early Theories

4.1.1. Environmental determinism

4.1.1.1. Environments determine human behavior and capacities

4.1.1.2. Ellsworth Huntington

4.1.1.3. Ellen Churchill Semple

4.1.2. Social darwinism

4.1.2.1. Humans are also affected by "survival of the fittest"

4.1.3. Cultural possibilism

4.1.3.1. Environment sets limitations but social conditions also play a part

4.2. Gathering History

4.2.1. Data

4.2.1.1. Historical and geographical (archival - written records)

4.2.1.2. Government documents

4.2.1.3. Settlement maps, photos, forestry records

4.2.1.4. Oral histories

4.3. Question of Power

4.3.1. Who controls the narrative?

4.3.2. Who writes the books and archival records?

4.3.3. Landscape archaeology

4.3.4. What is being left out of the narrative?

4.3.4.1. Whose voices are being catalogued, documented, narrated in environmental histories?

5. Culture and Political Ecology

5.1. The Birth of Cultural Ecology

5.1.1. Emphasis on technology in the 50's +60's

5.1.2. Independence of the Global South

5.1.2.1. Faults with local, native, indigenous production

5.1.2.2. Belief that production should be market based and not for substance

5.1.3. European Colonialism

5.1.3.1. Control over cultural habits, imaginations, the way of thinking

5.1.4. 2 Primary contributions

5.1.4.1. Emphasis on the ecological and economic rationality of these systems

5.1.4.2. Questioned the use, implementing, adoption of temperate techniques in tropical and equatorial environments

5.2. Themes Prominent in Cultural Ecology

5.2.1. Society and nature intimately connected

5.2.1.1. Resource management techniques through diet, production, technology, etc

5.2.1.2. Emphasis on micro-climates and environmental variability

5.2.2. Cultural practices and behaviors

5.2.2.1. Seeking the functional aspects of cultural traditions

5.2.3. Food production and population dynamics

5.2.3.1. Mesoamericans

5.3. Political Ecology

5.3.1. Critique of cultural ecology

5.3.2. Recognition of the political economy

5.3.2.1. Decision making structures

5.3.2.2. Hierarchies of power

5.4. Development Studies

5.4.1. Modernization theory

5.4.2. European innovation is key to economic growth

5.4.2.1. Technical expertise, know-how attitude, capital growth inevitable

5.4.2.2. Import ideas to tropical countries

5.5. Dependency Theory

5.5.1. 1960's - emphasis on "structure"

5.5.2. Underdevelopment because of European colonialism

5.5.2.1. Production of commodity crops for European markets

6. Climate, Atmosphere, Energy

6.1. Acid Deposition

6.1.1. Acid rain - nitric acid and sulfuric acid

6.1.2. burning of fossil fuels

6.2. Climate Change and Global Warming

6.2.1. climate and weather

6.2.2. Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Water Vapor, Nitrous oxides, CFC's

6.2.3. Carbon dioxide emissions

6.2.4. greenhouse effect

6.3. Carbon Sequestration

6.3.1. Carbon sinks - tropical forests, vegetative matter, soil

6.3.2. REDD (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

6.3.2.1. market incentives

6.3.2.2. biodiversity

6.3.2.3. issues (rights of locals, faulty carbon markets and methods of compensation)

6.4. Big Concerns

6.4.1. sea level rise

6.4.2. droughts and shifts in agricultural areas of the world

6.5. Policies

6.5.1. Earth summit 1992 - reduce carbon emissions

6.5.2. Kyoto Protocol - emissions trading

6.5.3. Copenhagen Accord 2009

6.6. Paris Climate Talks - 2015

6.6.1. Keep global temps >2 degrees C

6.6.2. goal of zero net emissions

6.6.3. 187 countries agreed to "intended nationally determined contributions"

7. Agriculture and Food Systems

7.1. Intensification

7.1.1. more labor and energy = higher yields

7.1.2. intensive agriculture systems have low external outputs and rely on labor

7.2. Traditional systems

7.2.1. global south

7.2.2. subsistence

7.2.3. polycultural

7.2.4. agroforestry: mixing crops and trees

7.2.5. shifting cultivation

7.2.6. intensive traditional agriculture

7.2.6.1. high yields, heavy inputs

7.2.7. pastoralism

7.3. Industrial Agriculture

7.3.1. global north

7.3.2. commercial

7.3.2.1. family and corporate farms

7.3.3. monocultural

7.3.4. uses fossil fuels, GMO's, fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides

7.3.5. CAFO's

7.3.5.1. Continental Animal Feeding Operations

7.4. Seed Development

7.4.1. hybrid seed varieties

7.4.2. GMO's

7.4.2.1. can get a copywriter on a seed

7.4.2.2. seeds are hard to contain

7.4.2.3. destroys native species

7.5. Green Revolution

7.5.1. 1960's - industrial revolution of agriculture

7.5.1.1. very successful around the world

7.5.2. hybrid seeds, fertilizers, pesticides

7.5.3. mixed: industrial and traditional systems

7.5.4. agricultural dual economy

7.5.5. plantation agriculture

7.5.6. urban agriculture

7.6. Agrosystems

7.6.1. interactions between pests and plants

7.7. Constraints of Traditional Agriculture

7.7.1. reduced fallow time

7.7.2. alternative employment - urban areas

7.7.3. return to polycultural systems difficult

7.7.4. absence/ lack of livestock for manure

7.7.4.1. diseases

7.7.5. green manure

7.7.6. soil erosion

7.7.6.1. power grabs

7.7.6.2. overgrazing

7.8. Constraints with Industrial and Plantation Agriculture

7.8.1. high yields, high energy inputs

7.8.2. pesticides, herbicides, fungicides

7.8.2.1. broad spectrum pesticides

7.8.2.2. persistent chemicals

7.8.2.3. circle of poison

7.8.3. bioaccumulation

7.8.4. biomagnification

7.8.5. pesticide resistance

7.8.5.1. bt cotton

7.8.6. genetic escape

7.8.7. integrated pest management

7.8.7.1. biological, mechanical, and chemical control

7.8.8. groundwater and surface water contamination

7.8.8.1. eutrophication

7.8.9. investments in dams, canals, irrigation infrastructure

7.9. Agriculture and Food Policy

7.9.1. low food prices, less pressure on wages

7.9.2. overproduction

7.9.3. subsidies

7.9.3.1. water

7.9.3.2. public land

7.10. Famine and Hunger

7.10.1. explained in environmental / resource management terms

7.10.1.1. natural events

7.10.1.2. declines in food production

7.10.2. food access

7.10.3. food availability

7.10.4. food sovereignty - relying on what your own country can produce

7.10.5. food self-sufficiency - different means by which food is produced

7.10.6. food security - being able to secure enough food

7.11. "Food Access" is Key

7.11.1. solution to hunger is not grow more food

7.11.2. structural failure to access food

7.11.2.1. poor and low income households

7.11.3. appropriate food production technologies

7.11.4. income - generating projects

7.11.5. cooperative grain banks

8. Themes Prominent in Cultural Ecology

8.1. Modernization Theory

8.1.1. European innovation is key to economic growth

8.2. Dualism

8.2.1. The Development of one area/group at the expensive of another

8.2.2. Analyzed at different scales

8.2.2.1. international

8.2.2.2. regional

8.2.2.3. local

8.2.3. Farmers in commercial agriculture and small scale substinence farming

8.2.4. Formal and informal work in urban areas

8.3. Political Ecology

8.3.1. A concern with scale

8.3.2. Understanding processes which lead marginalization

8.3.3. Consideration of social differentiation

8.3.4. Importance placed on power (in discourse)

8.4. Chains of Explanation

8.4.1. Help to understand proximate and ultimate causes

8.4.2. Commodity chain

8.4.2.1. Opaque and untraceable

8.5. Marginality

8.5.1. Social, economic, environmental

8.5.2. European settlers in African countries

8.5.2.1. Africans forced on to marginal lands

8.5.2.2. Helps to explain land degradation

8.6. Critiques of of Political Ecology

8.6.1. What are the critiques of PE?

8.6.1.1. deterministic

8.6.2. Agents of social change

8.6.2.1. Counter narratives

8.6.2.2. local resistance/local power

9. Hazards Geography and Human Vulnerability

9.1. Hazards

9.1.1. Situations that can cause injury, diseases, economic loss, or environmental damage

9.2. The political economy argument

9.2.1. The "choice" is influenced by place in society and structure of the economy

9.2.2. Natural hazard means different things to different communities

9.2.3. Nature/society interwoven

9.2.4. Technological hazards

9.3. Hazards and society

9.3.1. Risk

9.3.1.1. How do we measure risk?

9.3.1.2. Is risk equally shared?

9.3.2. Risk perception

9.3.2.1. Socio-cultural and economic factors that influence risk perception

9.3.2.2. Fast moving natural hazards and slow ones

9.3.2.3. Prior experience with a natural hazard

9.4. The element of power

9.4.1. Risk perception shapes by value and power based constructions of individual/community structure

9.4.2. Vulnerability

9.4.2.1. Short term and long term effects of risk

9.4.2.2. Varies over space and time

9.4.2.3. Depends on access to resources

9.4.2.3.1. Women, elderly, children, ethnic minorities, physically and mentally disabled

9.4.2.4. Material, institutional, attitudinal

10. Population, Consumption, Technology

10.1. Theory

10.1.1. exponential - J Curve

10.1.2. carrying capacity - S Curve

10.2. Structualist Perspective

10.2.1. Engels

10.2.1.1. individuals are a net benefit through labor

10.2.1.2. Outcome = poverty

10.2.2. Neo-structuralists

10.2.2.1. scarcities are an outcome of hoarding resources by countries and segments of society and unequal consumption levels

10.2.3. Esther Boserup

10.2.3.1. population increase led to greater productivity (food as dependent variables

10.2.4. David Harvey

10.2.4.1. why consider only population and resources

10.3. The Cornucopian or Technocratic

10.3.1. Technology will overcome resource constraints

10.3.2. Julian Simon

10.3.2.1. free markets, rising prices will lead to innovation

10.3.2.2. Focus on the economic concept of substitute

10.3.3. Bjorn Lomborg

10.3.3.1. skeptic - global environmental issues not supported by relevant data

10.3.4. IPAT Equation

10.3.4.1. impact = (population) (consumption/per person) (impact/per unit of consumption)

10.4. Criticisms

10.4.1. Double population does not mean double impact

10.4.2. Humans are predators on the environment

10.4.2.1. does not consider conservation and preservation

11. Biodiversity, Conservation, Protected Lands

11.1. Environmental Goverance

11.1.1. who decides what gets conserved?

11.1.2. who decides what the outcomes of conservations are?

11.1.3. who manages the conservation zones and why?

11.1.4. how do we conserve without an impact on local communities?

11.2. Biodiversity

11.2.1. genetic

11.2.2. species

11.2.3. habitat

11.2.4. genetic bottlenecks

11.2.5. minimum viable population

11.2.6. habitat fragmentation

11.3. Invasive Species

11.3.1. can work in an environment when the introduction is slow and gradual

11.4. Efforts at Conservation

11.4.1. value placed on human use

11.4.2. intrinsic value

11.4.3. couched in management principles during the colonial period

11.4.4. now: endangered species act and convention on biological diversity

11.5. Cultural and National Biodiversity

11.5.1. conservation

11.5.1.1. indigenous identity

11.5.1.2. local use

11.5.1.3. role of ecotourism

11.5.1.4. democratize and empower

11.5.1.4.1. local ability to manage resources

11.5.1.5. shared benefits

12. Water Resources and Fishing Livelihoods

12.1. Ancient Water Systems

12.1.1. Shaduf

12.1.2. Dike

12.1.3. Canals

12.1.4. Irrigation channels

12.2. Uses

12.2.1. Agriculture

12.2.1.1. uses the most

12.2.2. Domestic use

12.2.3. Industry

12.3. Water scarcity

12.3.1. Physical

12.3.2. economic

12.3.3. Privatization of water

12.3.3.1. neoliberal economics 80's

12.3.3.1.1. IMF

12.3.3.1.2. World Bank

12.3.4. Resistance

12.3.4.1. Global Water Justice Movement

12.3.4.2. water maps

12.4. Common Property Resources

12.4.1. tragedy of the commons

12.4.2. Elinor Ostrom

12.4.3. Documents instances of humans adapting to and collaboratively pursuing solutions to environmental problems through collective action