7 Aspects of Civilizations

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7 Aspects of Civilizations by Mind Map: 7 Aspects of Civilizations

1. Government and Leadership

1.1. Sumerians

1.1.1. Priests initially governed the city-states.

1.1.2. City- states began fighting for dominance which caused the war chiefs to act as kings of the land.

1.1.3. The kings preformed ceremonies to please the gods.

1.1.4. City-state's kings began dynasties.

1.2. Shang/Zhou

1.2.1. To help keep China in order, the Shang king appointed governors to rule distant parts of the kingdom, and had an army at his disposal.

1.2.2. China was ruled by a strong monarchy. Shangs kings were surrounded by a court, or gathering of wealthy nobles, who performed rituals intended to strengthen the kingdom and keep it safe.

1.2.3. The Zhou introduced the idea of The Mandate of Heaven. This principle stated that the gods would support a just ruler, but they would not allow anyone corrupt to hold power.

1.2.4. Later Chinese rulers explained the dynastic cycle, the rise and fall of dynasties in China. Any dynasty that lost power, had obviously become corrupt, and it was the will of gods that it be overthrown.

2. Science and Technology

2.1. Sumerians

2.1.1. The Sumerians created a math system based on the number 60. We still use their system for counting time such as 60 minutes in an hour.

2.1.2. They used geometry in order to create elaborate structures.

2.1.3. Sumerians invented the wheel, the plow, and sewers.

2.1.4. They preformed basic surgery which means they had a good medical knowledge.

2.1.5. The Wheel

2.2. Shang/Zhou

2.2.1. Zhou farmers learned new techniques that increased their harvest. This created a surplus of food, which caused cities to grow. As Zhou cities grew, better transportation through roads and canals was created.

2.2.2. Shang astronomers were able to produce a precise calendar based on the cycles of the moon.

2.2.3. As Zhou cities grew, better transportation through roads and canals was created.

2.2.4. They also began the use of chopsticks as eating implements, which are still used today.

2.2.5. Shang/Zhou oracle bone calandar

3. Economy and Trade

3.1. Sumerians

3.1.1. Lacked many materials such as wood and metal, so they traded with people across southwest Asia with textiles, art and stone.

3.1.2. The Sumerians invented the wood wheel.

3.1.3. Their economy was based heavily on agriculture and technological advancements.

3.1.4. h

3.2. Shang/Zhou

3.2.1. The Zhou learned how to use iron, which became the backbone of their economy.

3.2.2. Farmers learned new techniques that increased the size of their harvest, thereby creating surpluses. They would now be able to trade excess food for goods.

3.2.3. The growth of cities led to an advanced transportation system, which meant better communication for trading within different locations .

3.2.4. The Shang created one of the world's first systems of money.

4. Religion

4.1. Sumerians

4.1.1. The Sumerians were polytheists, meaning they believed in more than one God. They thought that their gods controlled all natural forces like the rain, and wind.

4.1.2. Sumerians believed their gods were living and did human like things. They believed their gods ate, and fell in love.

4.1.3. Sumerian people worked hard to please the gods because of their beliefs. They built many structures to worship and please the gods.

4.1.4. The Sumerian gods and priests were very high in the social class. Priests were the initial governors of the Sumer civilization.

4.1.5. Sumerian Tablet

4.2. Shang/Zhou

4.2.1. Most Shang tombs included valuable items made of things such as bronze and jade. This led historians to conclude that the Shang believed in afterlife.

4.2.2. The Shang religion was centered around the idea of ancestor worship. In order to keep their ancestors happy and fulfilled in the afterlife, the Shang offered them gifts.

4.2.3. Shang religion led to great advances in working with bronze along with other advances, such as, tombs.

4.2.4. The Shang often used oracle bones (inscribed bits of animal bone or turtle shell) to ask their ancestors for advice. Then, specially trained priests would interpret the cracks in the bone for the answer.

4.2.5. Shang/Zhou Religious Artifact

5. Geography and Agriculture

5.1. Sumerians

5.1.1. The Sumer civilization settles in an area called the Fertile Crescent or Mesopotamia, which is in between the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf.

5.1.2. The most fertile soil in the area is located between the Tigris and Euphrates river. The rivers often flooded in the spring leaving behind very fertile soil for growing crops.

5.1.3. The area where the Sumerians decided to settle in was a flat swamp area perfect for agriculture.

5.1.4. Farming in southern Mesopotamia could be very difficult because of the little rainfall, and unknown river floodings. The people of the sumer civilization learned how to control the water

5.1.5. Map of Sameria

5.2. Shang/Zhou

5.2.1. Long rivers, fertile soils, temperate climates , and isolated valleys made early China a great location to start a civilization. Therefore, Egypt and India, China's first civilizations, developed in river valleys.

5.2.2. The valley of Huang He was very fertile, due to the type of soil the river picked up.

5.2.3. Chang Jiang, located in Southern China, received heavy rain, making it an excellent region for growing rice.

5.2.4. Shang China was largely an agricultural society. Most people spent their time in the fields tending to crops.

5.2.5. Map of Shang/Zhou River Civilization

6. Social Structure and Family Life

6.1. Sumerians

6.1.1. People of the Sumer civilization loved to eat. They often ate beef, lamb and geese.

6.1.2. Women were seen as daughters to their father and a wife to their husband. They rarely acted as individuals. Women who did were often thought of royalty. Men were in charge of writing laws.

6.1.3. Families arranged marriages. Grooms often gave gifts and money to the brides family. Once women were engages they were considered part of their grooms family.

6.1.4. Kings and Priests were the highest social class. Next came large landowners and wealthy merchants. Below them were the majority of Sumerians who farmed and did all of the labor. Finally were the slaves.

6.2. Shang/Zhou

6.2.1. The Shang had a social pyramid that had the king at the top, with the military nobility, priests, merchants, and farmers following.

6.2.2. Wealthy members of society had free time which they spent in pursuit if leisure activities and hunting for sport. They also enjoyed collecting expensive items made from jade and bronze.

6.2.3. Conflict arose during the the Zhou dynasty when clan leaders in china rose up against the king. The Zhou rule was further weakened as more and more local leaders turned against them.

6.2.4. Many Chinese thinkers were led to question the nature of society and people's roles in it as this conflict arose.

7. Arts and Education

7.1. Sumerians

7.1.1. They developed a writing system with wedge-shaped strokes called cuneiform.

7.1.2. Sumerians payed scribes to create written documents. Being a scribe was a big accomplishment and lots of schooling.

7.1.3. There were clay tokens, which were small shapes made from clay, that were apparently used for counting agricultural and manufactured goods.

7.1.4. Sumerian architecture used a lot of columns, arches, and ramps.

7.1.5. Art Artifacts

7.2. Shang/Zhou

7.2.1. The earliest Shang Chinese writing were the questions asked or oracle bones, actually written on the bones themselves. These Shang texts used picture symbols to represent objects or ideas.

7.2.2. Shang artists created highly decorative bronze vessels and objects, many of which were used in religious rituals.

7.2.3. Instead of using bronze, the Zhou learned how to use iron. Iron was stronger then bronze, which helped with the creation of weapons.

7.2.4. Iron weapons helped strengthen the Zhou army, as did the newly created catapult.

7.2.5. Shang/Zhou art