Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Educational Inequality

1.1. Cultural Differences

1.1.1. Working-class and nonwhite: students often have a different mindset about themselves. Many may think to be successful they must act white. It can come from different views from their home life.

1.1.2. White middle class: Often has access to a wider range of educational opportunities outside of school. They may visit museums or travel and gain more knowledge.

1.2. School Centered Explanations

1.2.1. School Financing: Schools are funded using local, state, and federal taxes. Local tax comes from the value of the property tax in that given area. If a school is in a poor area they receive significantly less revenue for schools.

1.2.2. School Research:Says that we should have better research when it comes to determining between successful and failing schools. Student differences should be taken into consideration.

1.2.3. Gender and Schooling: believes that males and females are treated differently in multiple ways, including school. Feminist say that boys and girls are socialized differently and stereotyped.

1.2.4. Between-School Differences: Says that there is a large difference in the culture and achievement in the schools with higher and lower socioeconomic status.

2. Equality of Opportunity

2.1. Race, class, and gender impact educational outcomes.

2.1.1. Race: race can have a direct impact on the educational opportunities a student gets. White students have a higher percentage in reading and SAT scores which increases there chances of secondary education.

2.1.2. Class: Education is geared toward middle/upper class. The longer a child stays in school the more likely for parental contribution.

2.1.3. Gender: Males use to out preform females, but now females have caught up and passed in reading and writing. Girls still seem to be behind boys in mathematics.

2.2. Coleman Study of 1982.

2.2.1. Response one: Suggested that private schools out do public schools in the area of academics. It also stated that Catholic schools provide more for poverty students.

2.2.2. Response two: States that a students schools poverty rate and minority population has a bigger influence than the child's economic status or race.

3. School as Organizations

3.1. Federal Senator: Luther Strange

3.2. Federal Represenative: Mo Brooks

3.3. State Senator: Author Orr

3.4. State Represenative: Ed Henery

3.5. School Board Rep: Cynthia Sanders

3.6. Superintendent: Bill Hopkins

3.7. Members of School Board: Jimmy Dobs, Tom Earwood, Adam Glenn, John Holley, Paul Holmes, Billy Rhodes, Mike Tarpley.

3.8. Elements Of Change

3.8.1. School Processes: includes powerful cultural qualities. It can be difficult to change, but can be done. It often has to do with teacher pay, productivity, and professional standards.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism is thought o be American philosophy. It encourages people to find a process that allows the end result they want.

4.1.1. Generic Notations: Dewey suggested that the school should be an embryotic community that children learned how to be members of society. He pushed for freedom and responsibility in children's education and their right to choose.

4.1.2. Key Researchers: The key researchers of this world view are George Pierce, William James, and John Dewey.

4.1.3. Goal of Education: social order. Prepare for life in a democratic society.

4.1.4. Role of the Teacher: Facilitator, encourages, offers suggestions, questions, implements the course of study.

4.1.5. Method of Instruction: individually and in small groups. Referred to as problem-solving and inquiry method. Traditional method of instruction was abandoned.

4.1.6. Curriculum: Intermingling all standards in each subject.

5. Politics of Education

5.1. Purposes of schooling:

5.1.1. Intellectual purpose is to teach basic educational skills.

5.1.2. Political Purpose is to teach basic laws of the culture they live in and to prepare them for other political needs.

5.1.3. Social purpose is to ensure the socialization of children into appropriate social roles.

5.1.4. Economic role is to help form children into working adults. To try and start occupational roles.

5.2. The role of schools

5.2.1. The conservative sees the role as giving the education needed to create hard-working individuals. It also suggests that education molds children into the adult roles needed to maintain order.

5.3. Explanations of Unequal Education

5.3.1. Conservative sees that a student fails or succeeds because of their own actions and motivations.

5.4. Definition of Education Problems

6. History of U.S. Education

6.1. Reform Movement: Opposition to Public Education. I believe that this reform movement had the most influence on education because without it none of us would be where we are today. Without the Morrill Act that Congress passed in 1862, it allowed public money to be put toward schools.

6.2. Historical Interpretation: Conservative Perspectives. This historical interpretation suggests that schools curriculum should be strictly Western. The author also states the changes for equality of education in the US has caused a decrease in academic excellence.

7. Sociological Perspectives

7.1. Theoretical Perspectives

7.1.1. Functionalism: stresses independence and believes that school and society problems go hand in hand.

7.1.2. Conflict Theory: Says the reason for education is keeping social inequality and preserving power for those in higher positions.

7.1.3. Interactionism: has to do with the interactions between student and other students, and also with students and teachers. Suggests that the child will live up to the teacher expectations whether they be high or low.

7.2. 5 Effects of Schooling on Individuals

7.2.1. -Knowledge and Attitudes: sociologist argue that where a child attends school has a huge impact on their success.

7.2.2. -Employment: says that people with a degree have a higher chance of finding a job, but it does not mean they will have a better work ethic.

7.2.3. -Peer Groups and Alienation: says that the labeling of students by other peers or teachers can create alienation that can lead to school violence.

7.2.4. -Inadequate Schools: The most popular way that inequality is produced is through inadequate schools. It suggests that all children do no get the same opportunity for education.

7.2.5. -Gender: Says that men and women are not equal in the US society. Girls often start school ahead of boys, but by the time graduation comes they are often not living up to their potential. Also, behavior expectancy's are different for boys and girls.

8. Curriculum and Pedagogy

8.1. Developmentalist

8.1.1. Caters to the needs of the student over the needs of society. It is student centered and offers flexibility in the way things are taught based on the individual child. This theory makes schooling relevant to life.

8.2. Mimetic Tradition: teacher teaches objectives, assesses, and moves onto another unit.

8.3. Transformative Tradition: Teacher teaches more through, assesses, remediates if necessary, and then moves onto another unit.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School-based Reforms

9.1.1. School-Business Partnership is where a business would partner with a school and provide scholarships or internships for potential employees.

9.1.2. School-to-Work Programs were aimed toward students who did not foresee college in their future to gain knowledge and experience in the workforce as a trade.

9.2. Reforms that impacted education

9.2.1. Full Service and Community Schools impacted education in a deeper connection. Time and effort was put in to meet and accommodate students and their families. It was a way to connect with families and provide aide that was needed to help the student succeed in school.

9.2.2. Harlem Children's Zones changes education by creating an atmosphere where students were getting off the streets and talking about things that could change their lives for the better. It gave children safe places to hangout and collaborate with others about their educational future.