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1. Chapter 4 Sociology

1.1. Theoretical Perspectives

1.1.1. Functionalism Stresses independence Views society as a machine Moral unity is necessary for cohesion and harmony

1.1.2. Conflict Theory The ability of dominate groups to impose their will on subordinate groups. Force Cooperation Manipulation They defend inequalities on the inevitable outcome of biology and history.

1.1.3. Interactionalism Critiques and extensions of Functional and Conflict theory, States that the other theories are too "Big Picture" oriented. Functionalism and Conflict Theory do not reflect the day-to-day occurrences within the school,

1.2. 5 Effects of Schooling

1.2.1. Teacher Behavior Teachers have a huge impact on student learning and behavior. They have several different roles in the classroom. Intructors Educators Disciplinarians Friend Confidant Employer Beaurocrat They set standards and boost self-esteem.

1.2.2. Student and Peer Group Alienation Student culture typically idealizes certain traits. Athletic ability Looks Conflict can lead to alienation and violence. Subcultures play a role in shaping educational experiences. Strivers Intellectuals Unconnected Careerists Students preparing for lower status jobs are more likely to participate in rebellious subcultures,

1.2.3. De Facto Segregation Schools often reinforce and create inequalities for racial and ethnic minorities. African Americans that attended inclusive schools were more likely to succeed. Graduate Not get arrested Women less likely to have a baby before age 18

1.2.4. Gender Men are typically paid more than women for the same work. Women start out in school better than men cognitively and socially. In high school women lose confidence and have lower aspirations than boys.

1.2.5. Sociology and the Current Educational Crisis Schools have a difficult time helping students succeed when some begin school with disadvantages. Two-million students have no adult supervision after school. Fifteen-million students are raised by single mothers who make around 11.4k per year.

2. Chapter 3 History

2.1. Reform Movement

2.1.1. The Education of Women and African Americans Traditionally women in the western society are homemakers while males are the providers. Education for women was seen as "biologically harmful" and "too stressful." In 1821, Emma Hart Willard opened the Troy Female Seminary in Troy, New York In 1831, southerners believed that literacy caused insubordination. The slave population was not allowed to learn to read or write out of fear of a revolution. The 13th Amendment freed four-million slaves. The 14th Amendment granted full citizenship to former slaves. The Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 ended slavery in all states. In 1868 historically black colleges were established.

2.2. Historical Interpretation of U.S. Education

2.2.1. The Democratic-Liberal School Provides equal opportunities for all. Has an emphasis on expanding opportunities and purpose. Democratic-Liberal Historians suggest that each period of major education expansion involved liberal reformers. Educational opportunities were provided to larger segments of the population. They rejected conservative views.

3. Chapter 5 Philosophy

3.1. Extisentialism

3.1.1. Generic Notions Existentialism is an individualistic philosophy Existentialism has an emphasis on creating yourself and your own meaning through questions and choices.

3.1.2. Key Researchers 19th Century European philosopher Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1986) Maxine Greene Said in 1978 that educators must work constantly for students to become "wide awake."

3.1.3. Goal of Education Focusing on the needs of all individuals both cognitively and effectively. Anxiety generated through conflict should be addressed.

3.1.4. Role of Teacher Take risks Work with resistant students Empower them to choose and act on choices Having the tremendous responsibility of maintaining intensely personal relationships with the students.

3.1.5. Method of Instruction Recognize that each child has a different learning style. Teachers help students understand the world. Posing questions Generating activities Working together

3.1.6. Curriculum Biased towards humanity Teaching students about evoking emotional responses in literature. Art Drama Music Personal Interactions Teaching students from an early age about the different things that humankind is capable of producing. Problems Possibilities Horrors Accomplishments

4. Chapter 2 Politics of Education

4.1. The Four Purposes of Education

4.1.1. Intellectual To teach basic human cognitive skills such as reading, writing and math. To educate students in literature, history and the sciences. To establish higher order thinking skills such as analysis, evaluation and synthesis.

4.1.2. Political To inculcate allegiance to existing political order. (Patriotism) To prepare citizens who will participate in this political order, (Political Democracies) To help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order To teach basic laws of society.

4.1.3. Social To help solve social problems. To socialize children into various roles, behaviors and values of society.

4.1.4. Economic To prepare students for future jobs To select, train and allocate the students into the division of labor.

4.2. The Liberal Perspective

4.2.1. The Role of the School: Believes in equal opportunities to succeed in school and society. Teaches students to respect cultural diversity. Enables students to develop talents, creativity and sense of self. Provides equal education opportunities regardless of socioeconomic status.

4.2.2. Explanations of Unequal Performances Individuals begin school with different life changes, therefore some groups have more advantages than others. Society tries to even the playing field with policies and programs so the disadvantaged students can have a chance to succeed.

4.2.3. Definition of Educational Problems Schools often limit the chances of poor and minority children. Having too much discipline and authority discourages individual growth. The quality and climate of the classroom is better in suburban schools than it is in urban schools. The traditional curriculum is not diverse enough.

5. Chapter 6 Organizations

5.1. Members

5.1.1. Federal Alabama Senators Melson, Tim Holtzclaw, William L. Orr, Arthur

5.1.2. House of Representatives Greer, Lynn Williams, Phil McCutcheon, Mac Crawford, Danny

5.1.3. State Superintendent Ed Richardson

5.1.4. Local School Board Members Russel Johnson Beverly Malone Tim Green Scott Henry Shannon Hutton James Lucas Jennifer Manville

5.1.5. Representation of State School Board Kay Ivey Stephanie Bell Cynthia McCarty Jackie Zeigler Betty Peters Yvette M. Richardson Ella B Bell Jeffrey Newman Mary Scott Hunter Ed Richardson

5.1.6. Local Superintendent Dr. Trey Holladay

5.2. Changes in School Processes

5.2.1. 4 Elements of Change Conflict New behaviors Team Building Process and Content

5.3. Changes in School Cultures

5.3.1. Changing the culture of a school to become more student centered requires:: Time Effort Intelligence Good will

5.3.2. Planned change requires new ways of thinking.

6. Chapter 7 Curriculum & Pedagogy

6.1. Developmentalist Curriculum Theory

6.1.1. Student-Centered

6.1.2. The need and interests of the student are more important than the needs of the society,

6.1.3. Makes education come alive in a meaningful manner,

6.1.4. Teacher is a facilitator of student growth.

6.2. Two Dominant Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. Mimetic Tradtion Purpose of Education To transmit knowledge to the students Didactic Method Lecture-based communication in the classroom.

6.2.2. Transformative Tradition Purpose of Education To change the student in a meaningful way, Rejects the authoritarian relationship between students and teachers. Believes that teaching and learning are inextricably linked. Student becomes an integral part of the learning process.

7. Chapter 8 Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Class, Race and Gender's Impact Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. 3 Basic Forms of Social Stratification Caste Stratification Criteria such as race or religious worth Estate Stratification Family worth Class Stratification Economic

7.1.2. Class Students in different social classes have different kinds of educational experiences. Middle class students are more likely to speak "standard" English Higher class students are more likely to go to college Lower class students have parents with lower educational expectations due to finances

7.1.3. Race Minority students do not receive the same educational opportunities as white students.

7.1.4. Gender Women score higher on tests but are less likely to attain the same level of education as men .

7.2. Coleman Study 1982

7.2.1. Private schools out perform public schools in every subject.

7.2.2. Private schools demand more than public schools

8. Chapter 9 Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Difference Theory

8.1.1. There are family and cultural differences between working-class and nonwhite students and middle-class white students. Minority students are oppressed and exposed to racism, discrimination and unequal life chances.

8.1.2. nonwhite students resist dominant culture in the school anti-social culture

8.2. 4 School-Centered Explanations for Educational Inequality.

8.2.1. Student differences in intelligence levels

8.2.2. School processes help understand unequal educational performance

8.2.3. School differences are minimal

8.2.4. Focuses on between school processes

9. Chapter 10 Educational Reform

9.1. 2 School Based Reforms

9.1.1. Bush's No Child Left Behind Annual testing report testing Meet AYP standards Schools that do not meet standards are labeled as "In Need of Improvement"

9.1.2. President Obama's Race to the Top Adopting standards and assessments that prepare students for college and work Building data systems to measure student growth Recruiting, developing and rewarding teachers Turning around the lowest achieving schools

9.2. 2 Political Reforms that Impacted Education

9.2.1. Mayoral Control Eliminates corruption Increases student achievement

9.2.2. State Intervention Improving the district's capactiy to correct problems