Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Ch. 2

1.1. Politics of Education

1.1.1. The role of the school

1.1.2. 1)The conservative perspective provides the right training to make sure that the most experienced and hard working individual is rewarded the right tools to gain economic and social productivity.

1.1.3. explanations of unequal performance

1.1.4. 1)The Liberal perspective argues with students and groups of students who start school with different life situations have more advantages. This gives the right for programs to try and equalize the field and give disadvantage people a better background.

1.1.5. Definition of educational problems

1.1.6. 1) The Radical perspective is like the liberal viewpoint but has a different tone. It argues the points of educational system has failed with women rights through racist and sexist, the schools have changed the view on teaching practices that promote conformity, today curriculum is classiest, racist, and sexist while leaving out cultures and history. The last reason is that educational system simple shows inequality of both opportunity and results.

1.1.7. Four purpose of education:

1.1.8. 1) Intellectual Purpose- This is basic cognitive skills where students can gain higher-order of thinking skills.

1.1.9. 2) Political Purpose- This the way of preparing a citizens who will have a political background. It will help them gain political standards.

1.1.10. 3) Social Purpose-This is the purpose helping solve problems in social areas. Like family's and churches being able to shape children into roles, behaviors, and values of society.

1.1.11. 4) Economic Purpose- This is the purpose of preparing students into the roles of their occupation. It helps them train and show individuals the right of labor.

1.1.12. Ch.3

1.2. History of U.S. Education

1.2.1. 1)Reform Movement

1.2.2. The Age of Reform: Rise of the Common School: This period took place between 1820-1860. England brought over the textile industry and it created factory jobs and brought up more urban areas. Liberals and Conservatives view people as Americans greatest educational reformers. Radicals saw school as a way of teaching skills were the other two saw it as mans belief.

1.2.3. 2) Historical Interpretation

1.2.4. The Democratic-Liberal School view education as progressively evolving while allowing equality of opportunity to all. They believe each segments of education needs to be involved with liberal reforms and reject conservative views on school. They believe they need to move closer to ideals and equality without moving away from the other.

1.2.5. Ch.4

1.3. Sociological Perspectives

1.3.1. Functionalism- This has to do with stressing the independence of the social system. They view society as a type of machine where one part works with another to produce dynamic energy to build the work of a society. Most educators base their suggestions and functional of schooling on this perspective.

1.3.2. Conflict of Theory- It believes that the glue of society is economic, political, cultural, and military power. In a way a school is like a war zone. Students struggle against teachers while teachers struggle against administrators. This is because of two reason authority and power of the school and achievements. The founder of the conflict school in sociology of education was Karl Marx. This view offers important insights between school and our society.

1.3.3. Internationalism- This theory is basically the primarily critiques and extensions of the other two. They are observation of the two that emphasize of structure and process at a very general analysis. This theory tries and makes a strange place in school a common place instead. It also explains about students who are labeled gifted and has a learning disabled.

1.3.4. 5 Effects of School:

1.3.5. 1)Knowledge and Attitudes- People believe that a social class can have an effect on ones knowledge and attitudes. It said the higher the social class the higher their achievement level is. The difference between a school academic and policies do make a difference.

1.3.6. 2) Employment- Are employment opportunities gained from graduating high school and college? Yes they are, large business are required for high education. Some jobs are not required high education they basically learn the job by doing the job. Getting a college and personal degree is important for earning money, but education by itself does not make the levels of income.

1.3.7. 3)Teacher Behavior- Teachers have a huge impact on a students education and also their life. Jackson (1968) found out that teachers have 1,000 or more interpersonal contacts each day with their students. They have so many roles that they are such a busy person and when they come overwhelmed. This is called role of strain, where so many demands are placed on the teachers cannot feel comfortable. Self-fulfilling prophecy is where expectations play huge roll in deciding a students courage to work their full potential.

1.3.8. 4) Student Peer Groups and Alienation- During the High School days social groups run the school. Conflict between groups can lead to alienation or violence. A student culture plays a huge roll on their educational back ground. If they are in a bad group of people they will more than likely struggle;when if they are not they will have better chance attending college.

1.3.9. 5) Education and Inequality-A person social class is a huge factor in shaping someones education. It they are in poor social class they also might be in a poor education level. While being in a rich social class, they have the chance of being in a better education level. This is not decided by just money but also race, health, and religious belief are just a few others.

2. Ch. 9

2.1. Educational Inequality

2.1.1. Cultural Differences Theories

2.1.2. 1) One theory shows the working-class and nonwhite students as resisting the dominant culture of the schools. students show rejection of middle white class culture of academic success and anitschool culture.

2.1.3. 2) A study of suburban life shows that anti school culture of working-class suburban adolescent who listen to lots of music and all hipped up on automobiles are symbols of students with academic life of schooling consciously rejected and scorned.

2.1.4. School centered

2.1.5. School Financing- documented vast differences in funding between poor districts , called for equalization in school financing .

2.1.6. Effective school- if school effects are not significant then schools and teachers cant make an positive difference.

2.1.7. School centered is a processes as central to understanding unequal educational performances.

2.1.8. School centered focus on both between and within school processes.

3. Ch. 5

3.1. Philosophy of Education

3.1.1. Pragmatism- Philosophy that encourage people to find processes that work in order to achieve their desired.

3.1.2. Key researchers- George Sanders Pierce, William James, and John Dewey.

3.1.3. Generic Notions- This is advocated both freedom and responsibility for students, since those are vital components of democratic living.

3.1.4. Goal of Education- The goal of education is social order and goal of growth. Should be a function as preparation for life in society.

3.1.5. Role of teacher- Teacher should encourage, offer suggestions, questions, and help plan course of study.

3.1.6. Method of instruction- we refer to problem solving and inquiry method as the methods of instruction. They should start this by question and what they know.

3.1.7. Curriculum- Progressive educators support starting with contemporary problems and working from the known and unknown. Social studies is what use to be called expanding environments.

3.1.8. Ch.6

3.2. Schools as Organizations

3.2.1. Major stakeholders for my district.

3.2.2. Federal Alabama senators and House of Representative - Sen. Richard Shelby & Luther Strange. House of Rep. Mo Brooks.

3.2.3. State senator and House of Representative- Sen. Time Melson. House of Rep. Danny Crawford.

3.2.4. State superintendent- Interim Ed Richardson

3.2.5. Representative on state school board- Ella B Bell

3.2.6. Local superintendent- Tom Sisk

3.2.7. Board Members- Earl Glaze, Charles Shoulders, Brett McGill, Ronald Christ, Edward Winter, Bradley Young, and Anthony Hilliard.

3.2.8. School process- are the powerful cultural qualities a school has on a students emotion. Shaping series of inherent contradictions that develop a school are tough. Changing a school cultures require patience, skill, and good will.

3.2.9. School Cultures- This is what a student takes for granted the most. School cultures are very vulnerable because disruption between teacher and students. Conflict, New behaviors, Team building, and Process and content are are making schools a better learner centered. This is reflecting on effort, intelligence, and good will.

3.2.10. e

4. Ch. 7

4.1. Curriculum & Pedagogy

4.1.1. Humanist Curriculum- this point talks about the idealist philosophy that knowledge liberals arts. They say the purpose of education is to present students with what has been thought and written. This curriculum focuses mainly on Western heritage for basis of intellectual development. This curriculum dominant the 19th and early 20th century.

4.1.2. 1) This tradition is view as objective and organized body of knowledge transmitted to students.

4.1.3. 2) The second tradition is ignores the social and political dimensions of what is being taught in schools.

4.1.4. Ch.8

4.2. Equality of Opportunity

4.2.1. Class impact on Educational outcome- There are many different types of classes. What class you are in can impact the way you look at school. Families in upper and middle class expect their kids to finish school. Where people in working and underclass have lower standards. Its hard to expect equality of opportunity in the class impact.

4.2.2. Race- Even tho everyone suppose to have equal rights in the world, race is still a huge factor in today's society. A person race has a huge impact on how much education they will achieve. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as whites. They have to work tougher to retrieve their education.

4.2.3. Gender- Women have been seen as the better student, but in the past they are the ones who have a tougher time in attaining some education. In today time women are less likely to drop out and they are more likely to have better reading proficiency. The one area that men usually out perform women are in mathematics. In the last 20 years, the gender difference are not much different. They are gain around the same levels of education.

4.2.4. Two responses to the Coleman Study of 1982:

4.2.5. 1) The studies compared public and private schools have found that the private schools " do it better," more for the low-income students.

4.2.6. 2) where a Individual goes to school often depends on their race and socioeconomic background. While racial and socioeconomic have great impact on a students achievements than an individuals race and class.

5. Ch.10

5.1. Educational Reform

5.2. School based reforms

5.3. School-business Partnerships-they have attracted a lot of media and attention for the schools but its shown that little convincing evidence there is improvement in the schools.

5.4. Privatization - is the area between public and private education becomes blurred with private education companies increasingly involved in public education in different ways.

5.5. societal/ Economic reforms- their research include leadership as the driver for change, parent-community ties, professional capacity, student-centered learning climate, instructional guidance.