# Climate Change

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Climate Change

## 1. Earth's Climate

### 1.12. Why is it important that some of the insolation hitting Earth returns to space?

1.12.1. If some of the insolation hitting Earth didn't return to space, Earth would just get hotter and hotter. Earth would become an uninhabitable planet.

### 1.13. n diagram 7.18 on p. 277 of your textbook (Net Radiation Budget) what is the difference between the yellow parts of the diagram and the the brown parts of the diagram. (Be specific about what kind of radiation it is).

1.13.1. The yellow parts of the diagram shows incoming solar radiation and the brown parts of the diagram show how the atmosphere emits the outgoing infrared radiation.

### 1.14. What is the annual average of solar radiation (in Watts/square meter - W/m^2) hitting the outer surface of Earth’s atmosphere?

1.14.1. 342 W/m^2

### 1.15. In W/m^2, how much of this radiation, reflects back into space?

1.15.1. 107 W/m^2

1.16.1. 67 W/m^2

### 1.17. What is the annual average outgoing infrared radiation?

1.17.1. The annual outgoing infrared radiation is 235 W?m^2.

### 1.24. The creation of wind

1.24.1. Earth as a whole receives insolation from the Sun, but different parts of Earth receive different amounts

1.24.2. As the heated atmospheric gases gain energy and expand, the air becomes less dense and rises

1.24.3. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure exerted by the mass of air above any point on Earth’s surface

1.24.4. The rising and sinking masses of air in convection currents cause changes in atmospheric pressure, which cause wind.

### 1.27. Ocean circulations transport roughly the same amount of energy towards the poles as does the atmosphere. They are the main pathways for the transfer of thermal energy from the warmer latitudes near the equator to cooler areas near the poles. There are two types of ocean currents.

1.27.1. Surface Currents: The surface ocean currents are driven by the global wind patterns. The winds push on the surface of the water to a depth of about 100 m. Since they are caused by the winds, the surface currents reflect Earth’s global wind patterns.

1.27.2. Deep Ocean Currents: This current known as the global ocean conveyor belt is a “constantly moving system of deep-ocean circulation driven by temperature and salinity. The great ocean conveyor moves water around the globe. This motion is due to thermohaline currents (thermo = temperature; haline = salinity). Cold, salty water is dense and sinks to the bottom of the ocean while warm water is less dense and rises to the surface.

### 1.29. Precipitation: Since the amount of precipitation of an area is very important important to climate, the hydrologic cycle is an important factor in Earth’s climate. Deserts for instance are in areas where precipitation is very low. This occurs either in areas where the air cannot hold too much water - like in the arctic - or in areas where the prevailing winds do no carry the moisture over the land.

1.29.1. Precipitation will be severely affected as the Earth’s temperature continues to rise. More water will fall in areas already experiencing significant rainfall, and areas that are already dry will experience increased drought.

## 2. Evidence of Climate Change

### 2.6. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4 Key Findings

2.6.1. 1 - There is 95 percent certainty that human activities are responsible for global warming

2.6.2. 2 - Carbon dioxide is at an “unprecedented” level not seen for at least the last 800,000 years

2.6.3. 3 - Sea level is set to continue to rise at a faster rate than over the past 40 years

2.6.4. 4 - Over the last two decades, the Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets have been melting and glaciers have receded in most parts of the world.