My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. History of U.S. Education Chapter 3

1.1. The Progressive Era of Education Reform: The education system in America experienced great change at an incredible speed during the period from 1820 to 1860. As the Industrial Revolution brought people into the cities, Horace Mann led the fight for free public education. Mann had great concern for stability, order, and social mobility. Changes for women and African-Americans were also taking place with the increase of girls in elementary schools and secondary schools. Women's universities opened and put focus on teaching serious subjects of study like math, science, and history. While progress for women's education was expanding, African-American education was limited. Many people were still against educating African-Americans as they saw that it would lead to up rise and revolt. This was also a time of heavy immigration into the U.S. which led to a call to diversify American education. The most important part of this educational reform movement was the emergence of the public high school in the lake 1800's and early 1900's. The public high school allowed higher education on a massive scale. While filled with problems, this was a great step in the attempt to equally educate all American children. As many students do not go beyond the high school level, I believe that this is the most important stage in a students education. Widespread success at the high school level directly benefits the success of Americas work force and higher education institutions.

1.2. Historical Conservative Interpretation of U.S. Education: According to the textbook, the conservative perspective of U.S. education is that students know very little and that schools are mediocre. They believe that the progressive education social goals have sacrificed academic quality. They also believe that the historical pursuit of social and political objectives resulted in significant harm to the traditional academic goals of schooling. The fundamental function of school is to develop the powers of intelligence. Conservatives are against watered down content and call for a return to traditional Western curriculum. Conservative critics believe that the evolution of U.S. education has resulted in the dilution of academic excellence. Overall, conservatives are not happy with the current education system in America but are hopeful for bettering it in the future. While still flawed, an individual still has the opportunity to be successful if they work hard enough.

2. Politics of Education Chapter 2

2.1. Purposes of Education

2.1.1. Intellectual "To teach basic cognitive skills, transmit specific knowledge, and to acquire higher-order thinking skills." The intellectual purpose of education is to teach students basic skills, give them knowledge about specific subjects, and to teach then how to think.

2.1.2. Political "To inculcate allegiance to the existing political order, prepare citizens who will participate in this political order, assimilate diverse cultural groups into common political order, and to teach basic laws of the society." The political purpose of education is to teach students about the current conditions of politics, prepare them to participate in politics, to bring different cultures together, and to make students aware of the basic laws of our society.

2.1.3. Social "To help solve social problems, work as one of many institutions to ensure social cohesion, and to socialize children into various roles, behaviors, and values of the society." The social purpose of education is to teach students how to solve social problems, to learn how to operate within different social groups and roles, and to teach normal behaviors and values within their society.

2.1.4. Economic "To prepare students for later occupational roles, and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor." The economic purpose of education is to prepare students for all aspects of the workforce.

2.2. Political Perspectives

2.2.1. Conservative Role of the School "Providing the necessary educational training to ensure that the most talented and hard-working individuals receive the tools necessary to maximize economic and social productivity." Conservatives see the school as an opportunity where talented and hard working individuals can learn what they need to be successful economically and socially. Explanations of Unequal Performance "Individuals or groups of students rise and fall on their own intelligence, hard work, and initiative, and that achievement is based on hard work and sacrifice." Conservatives believe each individual is personally responsible for their own performance. Definition of Educational Problems 1. "Schools systematically lowered academic standards and reduced educational quality (decline of standards)." Schools have dropped their standards and the quality of education which give poor results. 2. "Schools watered down the traditional curriculum and thus weakened the schools ability to pass on the heritage of American and Western civilizations (decline of cultural literacy)." Schools spend less focus now on our traditional background and have watered down material to make school easier and more passable. 3. "Schools lost their traditional role of teaching moral standards and values (decline of values or of civilization)." Schools no longer teach moral standards and values giving a negative impact on our society. 4. "Schools lost their traditional disciplinary function and often became chaotic (decline of authority)." Schools no longer discipline their students to a level which brings order to the school. 5. "Schools are stifled by bureaucracy and inefficiency." Schools are inefficient and controlled by politics instead of educators.

2.2.2. Liberal

2.2.3. Radical

2.2.4. Neo-liberal

3. Sociological Perspectives Chapter 4

3.1. School and Society

3.1.1. Functionalism Functional sociologists believe that our society is an "interdependent" system, meaning that each part of society interacts with each other to produce a successful society. The schools are a very important part of society, teaching our children knowledge and values. Functionalists believe that schools "socialize students into the appropriate values, and sort and select students according to their abilities." By doing so, schools prepare students to be successfully integrated into society. This production of educated, socially ready citizens helps the society to run smoothly and be successful. To summarize, functionalism views the schools as an important part of society that produces educated, well valued citizens ready for their futures.

3.1.2. Conflict Theory The Conflict Theory of education views schools as a "social battlefield" where students are competing against the system for the success of their future. Conflict theorists do not view the relationship between the school system and society an "unproblematic or straightforward". Conflict theory sees the education system as promoting inequality. Ran by those at the top, the system attempts to preserve the power of the upper class. They believe that our education system places a status symbol on an individual which directly relates to their ability to succeed. An example of his is comparing a student from Harvard Business School to a student of The University of Alabama Business School; while the Alabama student may be just as smart the Harvard status symbol gives that student all the advantage.

3.1.3. Interactionalism "Interactional theories about the relation of school and society are primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict theories." Overall, the interactional theory views functionalism and conflict theory as very abstract and general. Interactionalism is focused on the specifics of everyday activity in the school system. These theorists are concerned with questions such as "What do students and teachers actually do in school?" and not just the big picture.

3.2. Effects of Schooling

3.2.1. 1. Employment: To me the greatest effect of schooling on an individual is giving them an opportunity for employment. It is a fact that graduating from college leads to greater employment opportunities. Many requirements for employment are solely based on the completion of a certain degree whether it be a high school diploma of a masters degree. While there are other factors at play, having a higher education will always benefit a student when they enter the workforce.

3.2.2. 2. Inadequate Schools: One of the greatest contributions to inequalities are inadequate schools. A child's future can greatly harmed before they ever even thing about work. Failing schools give children little opportunity to be successful while kids in a different neighborhood in the same city are being geared up for success. Failing schools can have a devastating impact on a child's life even if they are motivated and willing to learn. Many minority and poor children are are almost given no chance to be successful.

3.2.3. 3. Education and Mobility: Social mobility begins at the schools. Similar to the conflict theory, the completion of a degree gives one a great advantage in life. That life changing degree comes last in a long line of stepping stones beginning with elementary school. Success at an early age can put a child on the fast track to success, giving the less fortunate the opportunity to move up in the social class system. Few things in life provide such an opportunity for social mobility as the education system.

3.2.4. 4. Knowledge and Attitude: Along with quality academics, a positive attitude towards education is essential for a student to be successful. Schools are responsible for creating an environment where children can learn and should be motivated to do well. Having a positive attitude towards education will lead to better learning which will result in a better life in many ways. Along with employment and being economically stable, research also shows that having a positive attitude towards education is related to ones "sense of well-being and self-esteem". Concluded in the section of the textbook, "Thus, it is clear, even taking into account the importance of individual social class background when evaluating the impact if education, more years of schooling leads to greater knowledge and social participation."

3.2.5. 5. Gender: Another role that schools play is in the treatment and perception of gender roles. Schools can produce inequalities through gender discrimination. As a teacher, it is important to not discriminate against genders and to give everyone equal opportunities. Along with this, it is also important to motivate girls to exceed expectations to help close the gender gap through their success.

4. Philosophy of Education Chapter 5

4.1. Existentialism

4.1.1. Generic Notations Existentialists believe that we are "placed on earth alone and must make sense of the chaos we encounter". We have to create our own identities and meanings by the choices we make throughout our lives. We have the choice of good or evil, chaos or order. The idea of this is that existentialists have a great amount of freedom and responsibility.

4.1.2. Key Researchers Some of the key researchers of existentialism mentioned in the text are Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1986), European philosopher and founder Soren Kierkergaard (1813-1855, Martin Buber (1878-1965), Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), and contemporary philosopher Maxine Greene.

4.1.3. Goal of Education In existentialism, the goal of education should cater to the "needs of the individual, both cognitively and affectively". They place an importance on individuality and should address matters like conflict and anxiety. "They see education as an activity liberating the individual from a chaotic, absurd world."

4.1.4. Role of the Teacher Teachers must understand their own lives in order to help students understand their own. They believe that teachers must take risks, expose themselves, and constantly work to make students "wide awake". "Thus, the role of the teacher is an intensely personal one that carries with it a tremendous responsibility." I feel that this is similar with a holistic learning approach and engaged pedagogy.

4.1.5. Method of Instrction Existentialists view learning as very personal and believe that each child learns differently. They disagree with most of the methods used in modern schools. They believe that the teacher and student should learn together in a "friendly" relationship. "Thus, the role of the teacher is to help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities, and working together."

4.1.6. Curriculum Existentialists would prefer to focus mainly on the humanities. Literature is very important to them along with art, drama, and music.

5. Schools as Organizations Chapter 6

5.1. Major Stakeholders in Huntsville City Schools

5.1.1. State Senators Richard Shelby

5.1.2. House of Representatives Terri Collins - District 8

5.1.3. State Superintendent Michael Sentance, J.D., LL.M.

5.1.4. State Board of Education Kay Ivey - President Stephanie Bell - Vice President Mary Scott Hunter - District 8

5.1.5. Superintendent Dr. Matt Akin

5.1.6. Local Board of Education Elisa Ferrell - District 3 President Walker McGinnis - District 4 Vice President Beth Wilder - District 2 Third Presiding Officer Michelle Watkins - District 1 Pam Hill - District 5

5.2. Elements of Change Within Schools

5.2.1. Changing Authority With changes in school authority come changes in school processes and cultures. A principle or group of administrators can drastically alter the way a school is ran, for better or for worse.

5.2.2. Changing Political Compromises Changes on the political side of education can also greatly impact the environment of a school. Beyond the in-house administrators, the school board on both the local and state level can drastically change the policies within a school.

5.2.3. Rules and Regulations Similar to the others, changing rules and regulations can change the school processes and cultures. Rules and regulations play a big part in the day to day activities within a school and can have an immediate impact on the school.

5.2.4. School Makeup The makeup of the school can also play a major role in the way a school is ran. When a school has a various mix of cultures in its teachers, administrators, parents, community members, and students, the culture of that school can be very hard to deal with.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy Chapter 7

6.1. Historical Curriculum Theory

6.1.1. The Developmentalist Curriculum Theory: This historical theory regarding curriculum focuses on the particular needs and interests of a student rather than the needs of the society. This theory is backed by Dewey and Piaget, and places great importance on the process of teaching as well as the material being taught. This method is very student centered and focused on relating the material to the students own life. This method gives great leeway to both what is taught and how the teacher decides to teach it. "The teacher, was not a transmitter of knowledge but rather a facilitator of student growth." John Dewey John Dewy was an American philosopher and was very involved with educational reform in America. He was opposed to the normal way of teaching and though that education should be handled in a much more natural way. The following link is an article about Dewey's life works and his views on various topics from ethical and social theories to his influence on education. Dewey, John | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Jean Piaget Jean Piaget was a developmental psychologist with focus on one main question; how does knowledge grow? "His answer is that the growth of knowledge is a progressive construction of logically embedded structures superseding one another by a process of inclusion of lower less powerful logical means into higher and more powerful ones up to adulthood. Therefore, children's logic and modes of thinking are initially entirely different from those of adults." Jean Piaget Society - About Piaget

6.2. Sociological Curriculum Theory

6.2.1. Modern Functionalist Theory: This sociological curriculum theory stresses the role of schools in getting students ready for the many complex roles in our modern society. It was developed in the U.S. by Talcott Parsons and Robert Dreeben. Functionalists believe that the curriculum in schools must change to keep up with our ever changing society and growing technology. An example of this today would be teaching students technical work like robotics or computer programming skills as opposed to the classic history and literature. The main idea of the Functionalist Theory is being modern and teaching students how to adapt to change. Talcott Parsons Talcott Parsons was an American educator and sociologist known for his work with Functionalism. He spent 32 years in the sociology department at Harvard. Talcott Parsons Attached is an article discussing functionalism and the ideas behind it to gain a further understanding of the idea. Functionalism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy The following link is an article that talks about applying functionalism to our modern world. The Functionalist Perspective - Boundless Open Textbook

7. Equality of Opportunity Chapter 8

7.1. Class, Race, and Gender

7.1.1. The equality of opportunity and educational outcomes if heavily influenced by class, race, and gender. Firstly, the differences in educational experiences vary between classes. School can be very expensive which often times only gives the opportunities to those who can afford them. Families of a higher class also tend to have higher expectations for their children than those of lower classes. Children of higher class families usually have a grater access to things like books and study aids that can help them succeed in their education. For a lot of lower class families, English might not be their native language, making it harder for them to succeed in school. In summery, ones social class has great impact on their educational attainment. Secondly, race plays a big role in the opportunity for educational success. In the U.S. race still plays a big part of our society and puts those who are not white at a disadvantage. Studies have shown that African-Americans and other minorities are much more likely to drop out of school when compared to white students. Thins like drop our rates and school attendance play part in lower standardized test scores for minorities. Simply put, minorities do not receive the same opportunities as white students in America. Lastly, gender also plays a role in the opportunities that one is given. Over recent years the number of opportunities for girls have risen, and the gender gap in education is shrinking. Men still receive many advantages in education. Often the lack of opportunities for women in education transfer into a lack of opportunities in the work force. Overall, class, race, and gender play a big role in educational opportunity, and those other than white males are often at a disadvantage.

7.2. Coleman Study

7.2.1. The Coleman Study in 1982 received two responses. The first one stated that although statistically significant, the fact that private schools scored better than public schools were negligible when it came to terms of significant differences in learning. The second response was that the the school that a student goes to is usually related to their race and social class, but what is more important in determining the students academic achievement is the racial and socioeconomic makeup of that school. The argument is that race and class is a predictor or academic success. In conclusion, schools must eliminate the high levels of segregation avoid measurements that favor white students.

8. Educational Inequality Chapter 9

8.1. Cultural Deprivation Theories

8.1.1. The first cultural deprivation theory is that the poor have a deprived culture. They believe that these people lack the values of the middle and upper classes. The theory states that those from poor backgrounds are only looking for immediate reward and reject hard work. The students lack of success in school is thought to be because of the lack of skills and dispositions required for achievement in school.

8.1.2. The second cultural deprivation theory is that the programs aimed at helping these students have failed themselves. Studies have shown that compensatory programs have not improved significantly the academic achievement of disadvantaged students.

8.2. School-Centered Explanations for Educational Inequality

8.2.1. 1. School Financing One of the many problems leading to inequalities in schools is the difference in funding between them. Due to the difference in taxable income in various neighborhoods, certain schools are left with very little funding. Without enough money, schools lack resources from books and pencils to teachers and tutors. When a school can not spend the money per student that they need to, education and test scores drop, resulting in educational inequalities across the nation.

8.2.2. 2. Effective School Research Another problem causing educational inequalities is the lack of the needed school research. Studies have shown that the differences in school resources and the quality of the school do not fully explain differences in achievement. There are variables within a school as well as between schools that create inequalities in education. There are few answers on what makes an effective school and the things needed to do so may vary between districts. School research is always an ongoing process.

8.2.3. 3. Curriculum and Ability Grouping The differences in curriculum and ability grouping are also responsible for inequalities in education. A lot of times, schools divide students into groups and do not always teach those groups equally. The differences between the curriculum of certain teachers can have a great effect on what one students knows when compared to another. When all of these variables are combined, schools produce students with different amounts of knowledge.

8.2.4. 4. Gender and Schooling Lastly, gender and schooling create educational inequalities. While conditions with sexism are getting better in our society, for years females were put at a disadvantage in education because of their gender. Even though there has been progress, there are still inequalities caused by gender such as school socialization, the teaching of traditional curriculum, and hidden curriculum that reinforces gender roles and other expectations. Feminist groups are actively working to ensure the equality of gender in our schools.

9. Educational Reform Chapter 10

9.1. School-Based Reforms

9.1.1. Charter Schools The introduction of charter schools in 1991 was a school-based reform creating almost 3,700 charter schools serving over one million students nationwide. A charter school is a public school that does things the way that they think is best, instead of abiding strictly by the state laws. Charter schools are self-governing and have a great amount of control over their curriculum, instruction, staffing, budget, internal organization and calendar. They are paid for with tax dollars and must be open to all students in the school district. The primary focus of charter schools is results and those responsible for the school are held accountable to this. If the school does not perform, it can be shut down.Many people believe that charter schools are a good alternative when it comes to low-income urban areas. These schools can provide opportunity to students where it wasn't before. In 2004 the American Federation of Teachers put out a report saying that public schools were outperforming charter schools all over the country. Many opposed these results blaming the AFT for sloppy research. An argument of those who are pro charter schools is that it takes time for the success to develop. Later studies have shown that students are doing better in charter schools than those in public schools in the same neighborhoods. Further studies have shown that the quality of charter schools varies greatly throughout the nation. The success of charter schools really depends on the variables surrounding them.

9.1.2. School-Business Partnerships In the 1980's American business leaders were concerned that the schools were not producing the graduates that they needed . Several school-business partnerships were created, most notably the Boston Compact in 1982. The goals of these partnerships were to increase grades, graduation rates, and to even give scholarships for poor students to attend college. A few examples are The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation which has contributed hundreds of millions of dollars to small schools and teacher effectiveness, and the "billionaire boys club" founded by Diane Ravitch and Barbra Miner. Their foundation has also contributed significant amounts towards bettering education in America. Although some good has come from these partnerships, there is little evidence showing that these programs have significantly improved schools. But as a fairly new idea, the success could possibly rise in the future.

9.2. Societal, Economic, Community, or Political Reforms

9.2.1. Full Service and Community Schools Full Service and Community schools are another attempt to destroy inequality in education. The idea is to not only educate the child, but to also educate the entire community. Three models of community based reforms are: Dryfoo's model of full service schools, Canada's Harlem Children's Zone, and Newark's Broader Bolder Approach. Full service schools focus on education as well as physical, psychological, and social needs. They are an attempt to bring the schools and communities together, similar to the "it takes a village to raise a child" approach. Along with education children, they also work to educate adults, provide health clinics, recreation, mental health, drug rehabilitation, and many other services. Their goal is to improve at-risk areas and both solve and prevent problems in those areas. While a lot of good has been done for communities, there is no evidence that full-service schools affect student achievement.

9.2.2. School Finance Reforms After the Supreme Court's 1973 decision declaring that there is no constitutional right to an equal education, school reformers have been working at the state level. The court ruled in 1990 that schools in poor areas needed more funds to be successful in educating their students. Funding in school districts was then spread evenly to give each school the resources needed. In 1998 the state was required to provide supplemental programs for schools in order to improve education and its facilities. There have been other supplemental programs such as social services, increased security, better technology and school to work and summer programs. The creation of preschools and and supplemental services helped to improve school systems in poor areas. In 2009 a decision was made to allocate school funding based on student needs. The effects of this movement are still under study. There has been a long history of fighting between the courts and educational rights activists. All of these attempts can only do so much without addressing the outside variables in students lives. Rothstein and Anyon both make the conclusion that "school reform is necessary but inefficient to reduce the achievement gaps without broader social and economic policies aimed at addressing the pernicious effect of poverty". School finance reforms will never be enough on their own.