Behaviour Disorders and Issues

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Behaviour Disorders and Issues by Mind Map: Behaviour Disorders and Issues

1. Depression

1.1. Characteristics

1.1.1. often described as the invisible illness particularly in teenagers

1.1.2. Depression is NOT a personal weakness a character flaw the result of poor parenting

1.1.3. Depression IS a mental illness that affects the entire person. it changes the way they feel, think, and act.

1.1.4. It is generally defined as a persistent sad or irritable mood as well as "anhedonia" - a loss in the ability to experience pleasure in nearly all activities.

1.1.5. Students may be depressed if they are a victim of bullying Bullying can also may depression worse

1.2. Classroom Implications

1.2.1. Students may not be able to concentrate for long periods of time.

1.2.2. Students may struggle with communicating with their peers

1.2.3. Students may not want to come to class as they may not feel welcomed by their peers or teachers

1.3. Strategies

1.3.1. Provide students with compassion and empathy

1.3.2. Show flexibility with school policies This includes absences and tardiness

1.3.3. Allow for flexibility in workload Adjust assignments to accommodate students This can be to accommodate their moods or their absences from school Allow more time for students to write exams Brake larger assignments into smaller steps This makes it so that the large assignment does not feel quite as overwhelming

1.3.4. Provide a safe and caring classroom Students may be depressed as a they are a victim of bullying Bullying can also make a depression worse Ensure that the classroom is a place where harassment is NOT tolerated

1.3.5. Offer a place where depressed students can take a break or talk Students may need a safe place to go when they have become overwhelmed by their feelings Students may need to talk to a counsellor at any time throughout the day

1.3.6. Plan for gradually reintroducing a student to school If the student has had a lengthy amount of time spent away from school (either in the hospital or at home) they may need to be slowly reintroduced into school. Work with members in the school such as the counsellors, teachers, and principle to establish a plan for their return to school

1.3.7. Carefully observe ALL students Signs are not always apparent Signs may not emerge in obvious ways in your classroom It is IMPORTANT to know ALL of your students and to note any changes that have been seen in their behaviour

2. Traumatic Brain Injury

2.1. Characteristics

2.1.1. Traumatic Brain Injury can cause: Physical changes: headaches fatigue slowed reactions Cognitive changes: difficulties with:

2.2. Classroom Implications

2.2.1. A student may have a difficult time remembering new information

2.2.2. Recovery is often unpredictable They do recover some functioning that they lost before the incident

2.2.3. Students will miss some school Some miss school for a brief time while others will miss longer periods

2.3. Strategies

2.3.1. Accommodations to improve concentration Have student sit near the teacher in the classroom Keep distractions to a minimum Use peer note-takers Allow students to use various types of technology for support Provide assignments in writing Teach in small groups Schedule classes when student's attention is best Focus student's attention with verbal and non verbal cues Allow student's to have frequent breaks

2.3.2. Methods to improve memory Have students use a daily organizer to aid memory Give multiple-choice tests Have students use flash cards to help recall information Encourage the use of highlighters Utilize students best learning mode Visual Auditory Provide repetition of instruction Ask students to repeat information to confirm comprehension

2.3.3. Processing accommodations Review peer's notes or taped materials to add missed information Allow additional time for in-class assignments Reduce amount of homework Allow more time for students to respond

2.3.4. Accommodations and teaching strategies to improve executive function Have students return homework in a specific place Display classroom schedule Review daily routines with students Encourage students to use a daily organizer when giving assignments Encourage students to outline assignments Break projects into steps

3. Anxiety

3.1. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

3.1.1. Characteristics These students experience unwanted, intrusive thoughts or images that can cause them to engage in repetitive behaviours Compulsions are often: Elaborate Time consuming Interfere with routines at home affect performance at school Obsessions include exaggerated or imagined thoughts or images Common Obsessions Fear or illness Fear of death Fear of contamination Fear or image of harm to oneself or others Fear of doing or saying something evil or sinful Fear that "something bad might happen" Common Compulsions Avoidance of germs or dirt Repeated requests for reassurance Frequent prayer or confessions Repeated checking of locks or appliances Extreme perfectionism Seeking balance by Doing activities in certain set of numbers Excessive

3.1.2. Classroom Implications May not finish their tasks in a timely manner

3.1.3. Strategies Reassure students that they don't have to be perfect. Assure students that it isn't necessary for every aspect of assigned work to be perfect. Talk to them about how it is acceptable to make mistakes an that the fear of making them can slow their progress. Model a healthy attitude toward uncertainty and talk about how perfectionism is an impossible goal. Empathize with student's difficulties. It is important to avoid dismissing or ignoring a student's questions. Provide empathetic response while simultaneously trying to communicate a realistic perspective on classroom expectations. Consider decreasing a student's overall workload. It can substantially interfere with their schoolwork. Think about ways that you can address this while allowing students to show what they know. Allow for flexibility in deadlines and testing. Students that have Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder often obsess about completing assigned work perfectly. Students may procrastinate due to uncertainty about doing it the "right way" to complete the assigned work. In order to accommodate for these students Closely monitor student's progress with class work. Watch students to ensure that they are consistently progressing. When reviewing progress, reinforce the importance of moving ahead rather than making sure that their work is perfect. Avoid grading students on the neatness of their work Students can become obsessed with writing perfectly and become stalled as they write (and rewrite) answers. Be sure to make sure that the students know when they will not be marked on the neatness of their work. Place emphasis on the completion of work rather than the neatness of the work. Create a place where students can calm down when frustrated. When a student becomes upset they may just need a quiet place to sit to be able to calm down. Eliminate teasing Some students find the need to draw negative attention to their peers. If the student and their family approve, educate the whole class on OCD. Classmates are less likely to tease their peers when they are aware of why they act the way they do. When taking this step ensure that there is WRITTEN permission from BOTH the student and their parents.

3.2. Generalized Anxiety Disorders

3.2.1. Characteristics What causes it? believed to have biological, family, and environmental factors that contribute to to the cause. a chemical imbalance in the brain most likely contributes to the cause of anxiety disorders. while an individual might have inherited a biological tendency to be anxious, anxiety and fear can also be learned from the people around them that frequently display increased anxiety. Symptoms: children and adolescents usually do not realize that their anxiety is more intense than the situation warrants. the following are the most common symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder What is it? defined as chronic, excessive worry and fear that seems to have no real cause. Children and adolescents with Generalized Anxiety Disorder often worry about a lot of things such as: Who is affected? Approximately 13 percent of children and youth experience an anxiety disorder during childhood or adolescence. If ones parent(s) have an anxiety disorder they are more likely to have an anxiety disorder. Students with anxiety disorders experience excessive and irrational fears. These fears or behaviours may appear to be irrational to the person on the outside, it is very real to the person experiencing them. Anxiety often co-exists with ADHD and other disabilities. Students seem to worry about anything and everything

3.2.2. Classroom Implications Anxiety can affect a child's ability to learn as well as their ability to interact with their peers. Anxiety related behaviours are often mistakenly identified as behaviour issues. Students may express apprehension about tests, assignments, and grades. They may focus their concerns on the difficulty of the material, workload, or evaluation. Students may feel fatigues or restless Excessive worries often keep children and adolescents from getting enough sleep Students may have trouble concentrating Anxiety can make it difficult to concentrate They may be inattentive or even easily distracted by noises around them They may be overly emotional Fatigue and long-term anxiety often cause children to be very sensitive Students may avoid participating in school activities They will often try to get out of class activities because they feat they will not perform well Situations may include Children may be afraid to try an new activity Students may not come to school frequently absences that are not related to medical problems may suggest ongoing anxiety These students may feign sickness to stay home while others may skip class without their parents knowing Some students may abuse alcohol or other drugs Older students may use alcohol or drugs to lessen the anxiety

3.2.3. Strategies Give lots of reassurance and genuine, specific praise Provide students with ongoing reassurance to diminish their anxiety Be aware that students that have Generalized Anxiety Disorder often deflect compliments Carefully monitor students Students that have Generalized Anxiety Disorder often do not act in ways that attract attention. A students worry may not be obvious. Empathize with a student's anxiety Respond to an anxious student's concerns with an empathetic response. Show concern while at the same time suggesting a more rational way for the student to think about their worries. Establish routines and clarify expectations Students with anxiety benefit from consistency and clear expectations Allow for flexibility in workload Students with General Anxiety Disorder are often anxious about meeting expectations of their teachers or parents. Establish curricula check-in points Checking in with students enables you to verify that they are on schedule with their assigned work. Check-in points also serve as opportunities to provide guidance and encouragement. Emphasize progress students have made on given work. Modify instruction for diverse learning styles Motivating students with different strategies depending on what they are personally dealing with can be a powerful antidote to anxiety. Consider using a curriculum that incorporates a students learning styles and interests. Establish provisions for times when students feel overwhelmed Set up a "safe" place in the classroom for students to go and calm down when needed. Allow students to visit the office or a school counsellor as necessary. Consider setting up a coping plan for students who feel overwhelmed. Speak with the school counsellor, parents, and outside professionals working with the child It also affects children at home. Parents and mental health professionals can be very valuable sources of information for anxiety-reducing strategies. Consulting the school counsellor of psychologist can also provide you with ideas.

4. Self-Harm

4.1. Characteristics

4.1.1. Suicide Suicide is the most severe and irreversible form of self-injury. It is the third-leading cause of death for persons between the ages of 10 and 25 Depression is the most common reason for the attempt of suicide RESPONDING TO SIGNS OF SUICIDE Take all threats of suicide seriously Listen to what students have to say Don't agree to keep a student's secret Get immediate help WARNING SIGNS INCLUDE Talking or recurrent thoughts about suicide Feelings of helplessness or hopelessness Feelings of worthlessness or guilt A generally depressed irritable mood Loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities Changes in relationships Significant weight loss or gain Disturbances in sleep Fatigue or loss of energy Risky behaviours Recent loss or life-changing event Problems concentrating or indecisiveness Saying good-bye or giving away things NOTE: Students who have attempted in the past are at a greater risk to do so again

4.1.2. This refers to deliberate attempts to physically injure oneself. They deliberately cut, mark, burn, bite, bruise, or otherwise mutilate themselves They may pick their skin or scabs so that their injuries will not heal Acts of cutting may serve many purposes

4.1.3. Cutting is perceived by some as "trendy"

4.1.4. Self-injury is often kept a secret This making it difficult to detect

4.1.5. Young people often feel so ashamed or guilty about it that they can't face talking about it

4.1.6. Refusing to wear short sleeve shirts or take off layers as it gets warmer

4.1.7. Numerous unexplained scars, burns, or cuts

4.1.8. May voice concerns that they feel patronized and that others do not listen

4.1.9. Risk factors include: Eating disorders Physical, emotional, or sexual trauma or abuse Depression, paranoia or obsessive-compulsive disorder Low self-esteem and self-worth Bullying Feelings of shame, humiliation, and rage may se off incidents of self-harm

4.2. Classroom Implications

4.3. Strategies

4.3.1. Provide students with compassion and empathy Show students that you are genuinely interested in their lives and well-being Ask about: family friends interests other aspects of their lives A genuine and sustained interest in a student can have a positive impact on them Students are more likely to share when they feel that you sincerely care about them

4.3.2. Respond to students calmly Observing cuts, carving s, or scars on a students can be shocking Try your best to respond calmly to the student of you do observe suspicious marks Ask about wounds that are concerning to you be sure to ask in a non-judgemental way but try to find out the cause of them If a student does disclose with you that they did injure themselves, tell them that sharing their information is the FIRST step to getting help

4.3.3. Show sensitivity AVOID responding to self-injury with shock or disgust It can be perceived by the student as a negative judgement AVOID invasive questions Offer support and talk about how you need to involve a counsellor in getting help

4.3.4. Educate yourself about self-injury These behaviours are on the rise Do your best to stay up-to-date with this trend

4.3.5. Talk openly with your students about self-injury Acknowledge that you are aware about the fact that self-injury can sometimes be thought of as trendy or cool Talk about how self-injury can be addictive and is destructive nature Encourage students to reject peer pressure regarding self-injury

5. Addictions

5.1. Characteristics

5.1.1. Addiction is a medical condition masquerading as personal choice Marijuana loss of short-term memory loss Alcohol can cause students that are addicted to alcohol are far more likely to skip class or behave disobediently at school Anabolis Streroids sometimes taken by athletes

5.1.2. Addiction is tricky because it is a medical issue that masquerades itself as a personal issue The addict appears to be making poor decisions, while in realty, they are victims to the whims and wants of their drug of choice There is no way that a rational person would willingly trade away all that away because they wanted to.

5.2. Classroom Implications

5.2.1. Addictions have a MAJOR impact on school performance. Grades often suffers due to: lack of energy and focus poor concentrations loss of drive

5.2.2. Students often loose interest in extra curricular activities and other healthy social interactions

5.2.3. Addictions to drugs and alcohol can lead to truancy and even dropping out.

5.2.4. If the student needs to attend outside counselling or attend a residential treatment center it will interrupt their education It is important to be reasonable on what you expect from the students when they are at school

5.3. Strategies

5.3.1. Addictions are something that requires more support than a school can provide

5.3.2. It is important to provide the right message, hold the proper perspective, and work with the student through this difficult time

5.3.3. Remember is is a Medical Issue - NOT a Moral Issue Those affected, instinctively blame the situation on the addict "Those affected" refers to those that are affected by the behaviours of the addict

5.3.4. Look at the Big Picture Student-addicts often need to attend outside counselling sessions or spend time at a residential treatment center This is to their recovery a strong intense focus Addiction treatment is a life-and-death issue Making sure that the students get the necessary help they need outweighs ALL school related matter.

5.3.5. Empathize - DON'T Sympathize Nobody has an easy time addressing their addictions. A better tactic than telling them that you feel sorry for them, is to let them know that you are happy that they are OK and getting the help they need Offer a safe harbour for the child Even if they never come to seek help from you By offering a safe harbour it sends a strong message about the caring nature of the school staff

5.3.6. Talk to Your Supervisor Be sure to speak with the classroom teacher, special education teacher, principal and/or counsellor. They will give you specific advice and direction as you help support the student. Working off their advice and guidance is the best way to proceed It ensures that you are certain that you are not overstepping boundaries and that you are doing the best possible job on behalf of the child

5.3.7. Keep Confidentiality It is essential that the student's private life remains PRIVATE DO NOT engage in gossip about a students private life. The student has too much a stake to get caught up in the petty pursuits of unkind people


6.1. Characteristics

6.1.1. Students have difficulty with attention and impulse control

6.1.2. Caused by differences in how several parts of the brain function Make it difficult for someone to perform certain tasks

6.1.3. Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type Overactive and misbehave Don't think about the consequences Students may: Fidget stray from desks otherwise move around Typically diagnosed in preschool or kindergarten

6.1.4. Predominantly Inattentive Type This type is sometimes referred to as ADD it is referred to this because young people that have this diagnosis typically have little or no impulsivity or hyper activity They primarily experience difficulties with attention, alertness, organization, memory, and planning. May be described as slow moving, "spacey", or lethargic Often misinterpreted as lazy, unmotivated, or irresponsible.

6.1.5. Combined Type Have difficulties with impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention Often get the most attention they experience a very wide variety of challenges related to both behaviour and academics. Also have a weakness with executive functions these functions allow students to start tasks, plan, organize information, and remember what they learn

6.2. Classroom Implications

6.2.1. They may struggle with concentrating on lessons and completing schoolwork. This can lead to poor academic performance

6.2.2. Disruptive or distracting to peers and teachers

6.2.3. Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type Fidgets in seat can cause a disruption to peers and teachers Possibility of putting themselves at risk by climbing in inappropriate situations Difficulty making friends if they: Have a difficulty playing quietly Talk excessively They may blurt out the answers to questions, causing their peers to not get a chance to answer or think about the answer

6.2.4. Predominately Inattentive Type Don't pay attention to detail Have difficulty sustaining attention in tasks Doesn't listen when being directly spoken to Does not follow trough with directions which leads to not completing school work Have difficulty with organization Losses things that are necessary for tasks and activities Easily distracted by extraneous stimuli Forgetful in daily activities

6.2.5. Combined Type The implications are from both of the above categories.

6.3. Strategies

6.3.1. Inattention Be thoughtful about where you seat a student Seat away from distractions Seat students near those who are good role models and that pay attention It can also be helpful to seat a student right at the front of the classroom Develop a system of signals with a student tell the student that you will use specific signals with them when you want them to do something in specific Make direct eye contact with a student Frequent eye contact can keep a student engaged in the discussions of the class Write instructions on the board If a student misses the direction because they were distracted they are still abel to complete the task as it is written on the board Provide students with a copy of the notes Even when using the best efforts to keep a student engaged they will miss important information Provide them with the notes so that they can write tests and do assignments in the future related to the topic Encourage students to check their work Students with ADHD often make careless mistakes Ask them to look over assignments or tests before handing them in Minimize writing on tests and assignments Few words on a page the easier it will be for those that are visually overwhelmed Use the more white than black rule Prepare the class in advance for transitions Ensure students know when the transitions will occur Use computerized instruction Learning software may be more engaging to visual learners Modify instruction for diverse learning styles Teaching through different learning styles can be a powerful mean of engagement Consider a curriculum that incorporates learning styles and interests

6.3.2. Slow or inefficient work production Allow students extra time to complete tasks Often struggle to compete work or tests Receiving poor grades can be discouraging to students Relax deadlines when necessary Give some credit for work that is handed in late Reduce quantity of assigned class and homework Problems with attention and focus can make it difficult to complete the same amount of work as their peers May feel that meeting the workload is impossible When appropriate reduce the amount given to them Use a timer for students work Can motivate the student Break longer assignments into shorter parts Ask students to check in when completing certian part of their task Frequent breaks allow them to regain their focus Checking in also allows you to monitor their progress Recommend students do the easiest tasks first Students may get stuck on a question and they will want to stay on that question until complete

6.3.3. Excessive physical activity and impulsivity Allow students to move in ways that do not distract others Let students stretch quietly or play with a quiet object when they feel the urge to move Provide opportunities for physical activity incorporate physical activity into lessons Prevent students from turning in work or tests too early Tell students that you will not accept their work if they have not put their full effort into it Tell them that you will not accept their work before a certain amount of time Allow students to run errands for you Allow them the periodically run errands for you Closely monitor behaviour during transitions and unstructured activities Reiterate rules for unstructured times and closely supervise Address misbehaviour with a minimum of attention As much as possible, address inappropriate behaviour without drawing a lot of attention to it Involve students in monitoring their own behaviour Provide students with a self-monitoring checklist Set up behaviour contracts Create a contract that specifically spells out what that student agrees to do as well as the reward Provide positive reinforcement for appropriate behaviours Encourage and reinforce behaviour that is progressively getting better Use classroom management techniques that specifically address ADHD Classroom rules and instructions must be delivered clearly, briefly, and frequently Positive consequences must be implemented prior to punishments