OTTOMAN EMPIRE.

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OTTOMAN EMPIRE. by Mind Map: OTTOMAN EMPIRE.

1. 1-After prophet Muhammad’s death in 632 A.D., Muslim faith & power spread throughout Middle East

2. 2-By 1215, foreign invaders (Mongols from eastern Asia) took over the lands of the Muslim empire. Islam’s power in the Middle East started to decline.

3. 3-A new empire arose out of the leftovers of the old sultanates (kingdoms) of Anatolia (Turkey). 1299 A.D.- one of these sultans (Osman) began to expand his kingdom Osman started the Ottoman Empire, named after him.

4. 4-It was one of the largest & longest lasting empires in history It was an empire supported & inspired by Islam It replaced the Byzantine Empire (former Roman Empire) as the major power in the Eastern Mediterranean.

5. 5-Founded on the principles of Islam United by Islamic beliefs Churches were converted into mosques Tolerant of other religions, especially Christians and Jews Encouraged loyalty from other religious faith groups

6. 6-Group of soldiers loyal to the sultan (king) Army of slaves & Christian converts to Islam Helped to expand the empire Became so powerful that the sultans feared them

7. 7-1352 A.D. sultans able to cross over into Europe 1453 A.D.-Ottoman soldiers known as Janissaries conquered Constantinople (Istanbul) from the Byzantine empire, thus ending the Roman Empire. 1517 A.D. Ottomans had control of Egypt & extended control to most of North African coast. 1520-1566: peak of power during rule of Suleiman (“The Magnificent”)

8. 8-Greatest Ottoman leader of all time Brought justice & harmony by publishing a code of laws Feared & respected by Europeans Turned Constantinople into a great center of art, music, writing, and philosophy Wrote some of the most beautiful poetry of his time

9. 9-1571 A.D. – decline began after several military defeats 1683 A.D.-failed invasion of Vienna, Austria Economic problems 1. trade competition from Americas 2. cheap products from India & Far East 3. development of other trade routes 4. rising unemployment & near bankruptcy