Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Chapter 2: Politics of Education

1.1. Purpose of Education

1.1.1. Political Schooling

1.1.1.1. prepare citizens to participate in political order

1.1.1.2. teach basic laws of society

1.1.1.3. assimilate diverse cultural groups into common political order

1.1.2. Intellectual Schooling

1.1.2.1. transmit specific knowledge

1.1.2.2. assist students in acquiring higher-order thinking skills

1.1.3. Economic Schooling

1.1.3.1. train and allocate individuals into the labor division, directly or indirectly

1.1.4. Social Schooling

1.1.4.1. socialize children into various roles, behaviors, and values of society

1.1.4.2. ensure social cohesion

1.2. Role of School

1.2.1. Conservative Perspective

1.2.1.1. provide a place for individual merit to be encouraged and reward

1.2.1.2. ensure that all students have the opportunity to compete individually in the marketplace

1.2.1.3. socialize children into roles necessary to maintain social order

1.2.2. Liberal Perspective

1.2.2.1. stresses individual needs such as developing talents, creativity, and self

1.2.2.2. stresses importance of participation in a democratic society

1.2.2.3. stresess respect of cultural diversity

1.2.3. Radical Perspective

1.2.3.1. views that an unequal education system prepares students from different backgrounds for economic division.

1.2.3.2. views equality of opportunity as an illusion

1.2.3.3. views the school's role is to perpetuate society and serve the interest of those with wealth and power

2. Chapter 3: History of U. S. Education

2.1. Reform In Public Schooling

2.1.1. The rise of the Common School

2.1.1.1. Belief that education was the road to secular paradise.

2.1.1.2. Charity schools were the only means of education for underprivileged.

2.1.1.3. Horace Mann lobbied for state board of education, became the first secretary occupying the position for 11 years.

2.1.1.4. The first "Normal School' 'was established in Lexington, Massachusetts, in 1839

2.1.1.5. Mann argued that "Common Schools", free schools, reflect stability and order; preparation for citizenship "the great equalizer of the conditions of men".

2.2. Historical Interpretation of U. S. Education

2.2.1. Democratic-Liberal Persepective

2.2.1.1. The belief that the history of U.S. education involves the progressive evolution of school systems committed to providing equality of opportunity for all.

2.2.1.1.1. expand educational opportunities to larger populations

2.2.1.1.2. reject conservative view of education as an elite institution

2.2.1.1.3. social goals became more important than intellectual goals

3. Chapter 4: Sociology of Education

3.1. 5 Effects of Schooling

3.1.1. Employment

3.1.1.1. belief that higher education leads to high income and employment opportunities

3.1.2. De Facto Segregration

3.1.2.1. belief that schools reinforce (create) inequalities; racial and ethnic

3.1.3. Peer Groups and Alienation

3.1.3.1. belief that the adult culture is in conflict with student culture

3.1.4. Teacher Behavior

3.1.4.1. belief that teachers are models for students; influence learning and behavior

3.1.5. Education and Mobility

3.1.5.1. belief that occupational and social mobility begin at school; "the great equalizer"

3.2. theoretical perspectives

3.2.1. Conflict Theory

3.2.1.1. Theory that argues the social order of society is not based on some collective agreement; glue of society lies in economic, political, cultural, and military power

3.2.1.1.1. dominate groups impose will on subordinate groups through force, cooptation and manipulation.

3.2.2. Functionalism Theory

3.2.2.1. Theory that stresses the interdependence of the social system.

3.2.2.1.1. view society as a machine; all parts work together to make society function

3.2.3. Interaction Theory

3.2.3.1. Theory about the relationship between school and society ate primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives.

3.2.3.1.1. what teachers and students actually do during school; labeling process, relationships, advantages/disadvantages

4. Chapter 5: Philosophy of Education

4.1. Existentialism Perspective

4.1.1. Notion

4.1.1.1. Existentialist believe that individuals create themselves; they create their own meaning.

4.1.2. Contributors

4.1.2.1. "existence precedes essence', Jean Paul Sartre

4.1.2.2. existentialism relevance to education begining in the 19th century, Soren Kierkegaard

4.1.2.3. "wide awakeness" is Maxine Greene's notion that students must move to new levels of awareness

4.1.2.4. Martin Buber wrote the I-thou approach "friendship" between students and teachers

4.1.3. Goal of Education

4.1.3.1. focuses on needs of individual students, both cognitively and affectively

4.1.3.2. stress individuality

4.1.3.3. discussions of rational and non-rational world

4.1.3.4. address conflicts with living in the real world particularly anxiety

4.1.4. Role of the Teacher

4.1.4.1. help students achieve the best "lived worlds" possible

4.1.4.2. take risk

4.1.4.3. expose themselves to reluctant students

4.1.4.4. work continuously to enable student to become "wide awake"

4.1.4.5. empower students to choose and act on their choices

4.1.5. Method of Instruction

4.1.5.1. intensely personal experience

4.1.5.2. each child has a different learning style the teacher must discover

4.1.5.3. nontraditional, nonthreatening cooperative learning

4.1.5.4. constant discover and rediscovery of knowledge

4.1.5.5. teachers help students understand the world through questions, generating activities and working together

4.1.6. Curriculum

4.1.6.1. heavily biased toward humanities

4.1.6.2. Literature, Art, drama, and music; evoke awareness and encourage personal interaction

4.1.6.3. expose students to problems and possibilities as well as horrors and accomplishments that humankind is capable of producing

5. Chapter 6: Schools as Organizations

5.1. District Stakeholders

5.1.1. By definition a stakeholder is anyone with an interest in the wellbeing of an organization or program; education stakeholders refer to anyone who is invested in the welfare and success of a school and its students

5.1.1.1. Alabama State Senators:

5.1.1.1.1. Richard Shelby

5.1.1.1.2. Luther Stange

5.1.1.1.3. Steve Livingston

5.1.1.2. Alabama State Representatives:

5.1.1.2.1. Mo Brooks

5.1.1.2.2. James Hanes

5.1.1.3. State Superintendent of Education:

5.1.1.3.1. Michael Sentance

5.1.1.4. State Board of Education Representatives:

5.1.1.4.1. Gov. Robert Bently

5.1.1.4.2. Dr. Yvette Richardson

5.1.1.4.3. Micheal Sentance

5.1.1.4.4. Mary Scott Hunter

5.1.1.4.5. Jackie Ziegler

5.1.1.4.6. Betty Peters

5.1.1.4.7. Stephanie Bell

5.1.1.4.8. Ella E. Bell

5.1.1.4.9. Dr. Cynthia Sanders McCarty

5.1.1.4.10. Jeffery NEwman

5.1.1.5. Jackson County Superintendent of Education:

5.1.1.5.1. Kevin Dukes

5.1.1.6. Jackson County Board of Education Representatives:

5.1.1.6.1. Chad Gorham

5.1.1.6.2. Cecil Gant

5.1.1.6.3. Dr. Angela Guess

5.1.1.6.4. Charles West

5.1.1.6.5. Kenneth Story

5.2. Elements of Change

5.2.1. School Process

5.2.1.1. School processes are what organizations and staff do to help students learn; programs, curriculum, instruction and assessment strategies, interventions, etc.

5.2.2. School Culture

5.2.2.1. School culture is usually defines functions of the school (written and unwritten) such as beliefs, perceptions, relationships, attitudes; but also includes safety, classroom organizations, and/or cultural diversity.

6. Chapter 7: Curriculum & Pedagogy

6.1. Curriculum Theory

6.1.1. Developmentalist Theory: related to the needs and interest of the students rather than society.

6.1.1.1. Progressive approach to student centered learning

6.1.1.2. Curriculum is related to the needs/interest of the students especially in the developmental stages

6.1.1.3. Curriculum is related to "real world" experiences

6.1.1.4. The teacher is the facilitator in the students growth not just a transmitter of knowledge

6.2. Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. Mimetic Tradition

6.2.1.1. Transmission of specific knowledge to students; Teacher (knower) to Student (learner)

6.2.1.1.1. Didactic Method: reliance on lecture and/or presentation as the main communiction.

6.2.2. Transformative Tradition

6.2.2.1. The belief that the purpose of education is to promote a meaningful change in the student; intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally

6.2.2.1.1. More to learning than the transfer of knowledge; an artistic endeavor

7. Chapter 8: Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Impacts on Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Race: The impact of ones ethnic background on how much education is likely to achieve.

7.1.1.1. In the U.S. it is difficult to separate race from class. Minority students receive fewer and inferior educational opportunities.

7.1.1.1.1. Drop out rate among ethnic groups:

7.1.1.1.2. Literacy among ethnic groups:

7.1.2. Class: Students in different social classes can have different kinds of educational experiences.

7.1.2.1. Education is expensive, the longer a student stays in school the more financial assistance is needed.

7.1.2.1.1. Middle and Upper class expect children to finish school (higher level learning). whereas Lower class families have lower levels of expectations.

7.1.2.2. Academic achievement is a direct correlation between family income.

7.1.2.2.1. The ability to use "standard" English is a benefit to the middle and upper class students.

7.1.2.3. Peer groups have a significant influence on students' attitudes toward learning.

7.1.2.3.1. Schools that have more middle class enrollment are more likely to emphases higher academic achievement.

7.1.3. Gender: The divide in educational and occupational attainment due to a persons gender.

7.1.3.1. Throughout History, gender determined the educational level men and women. But, in the last 20 years the gap has reduced.

7.1.3.1.1. Society's preconceived notions:

7.2. Coleman Study 1982

7.2.1. The difference in education and achievement scores of public and private school student; because of the higher academic demands,disciplinary standards, and the kinds of families and communities to which the children belong

7.2.1.1. Private schools seem to advantage low-income minority students in urban areas.

7.2.1.2. The socioeconomic and racial background of the school has a greater affect on a students achievement than race or class.

8. Chapter 9:Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Deprivation Theory

8.1.1. Working -class and nonwhite students come to school without intellectual and social skills needed for success.

8.1.1.1. The lack of a middle-class culture that values schooling, hard work, and initiative educationally disadvantages students.

8.1.1.2. Working-class and nonwhite families often lack the cultural resources such as books and educational stimuli

8.1.2. School-Centered Inequality Explanations

8.1.2.1. School Financing

8.1.2.1.1. Affluent communities are able to provide more per pupil than those in poorer communities.

8.1.2.2. Effective School Research

8.1.2.2.1. School comparisons need to be made with lower socioeconomic communities to provide more sound evidence between schools.

8.1.2.3. Cirriculum and Pedagogic Practices

8.1.2.3.1. The affect of school climates on academic performance, how students are taught, teacher affects outcomes.

8.1.2.4. Curriculum and Ability Grouping

8.1.2.4.1. Different groups of students in the same schools preform very differently, school characteristics affect outcomes.

9. Chapter 10: Educational Reform

9.1. School Based Reform

9.1.1. School Based

9.1.1.1. 1980 and 1990 research showed that most public schools were failing in achievement, discipline, and morality.

9.1.1.1.1. Charter Schools: public schools that are free from regulations and are held accountable for student performance.

9.1.1.1.2. Tuition Vouchers: use of pubic funds to send students to private institutions.

9.1.1.1.3. School Choice: permitted families to choose which school their children attended, with/without regulations.

9.1.2. School-to-Work Programs

9.1.2.1. Extension of vocational emphasis to non-college-bound students to gain work force skills necessary for successful employment.

9.1.2.1.1. Career ready students

9.1.2.1.2. Structured training for skilled labor environment

9.2. Societal Based Reform

9.2.1. Full Service and Community Schools

9.2.1.1. Focus on meeting students' and their families educational, physical, and social needs.

9.2.1.2. Designed to target and improve at-risk neighborhoods, support and prevention of problems

9.2.2. Harlem Children's Zone

9.2.2.1. Provide quality early childhood education to low-income minority children

9.2.2.1.1. Programs begin with parental participation before their children are born, learning how to provide healthy home environments.