My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Education Reformation

1.1. School-based reforms

1.1.1. School choice

1.1.1.1. Charter Schools

1.1.1.1.1. Public schools that are free from many of the regulations applied to traditional public schools

1.1.1.1.2. Are held accountable for their student performance

1.1.1.1.3. The school "charter" is a performance contract that details the schools mission, program, goals, students served, methods of assessment, and ways of measuring success. It is a legal document between those who run the school and the public body that authorizes and monitor the school

1.1.1.1.4. Self-governing institutions with wide control over their own curriculum, instruction, staffing, budget, internal organization, and calendar

1.1.1.1.5. Public school paid for with tax dollars

1.1.1.1.6. If a charter school fails to meet the provisions of its charter it can lose its funding and be forced to close

1.1.1.1.7. Advocates believe that since they are freed from the bureaucratic constraints of the traditional public school, charter schools will provide a better education at a lower cost

1.1.1.2. Voucher Programs

1.1.1.2.1. Funds go directly to families and can be used to attend religious private schools or secular private schools

1.1.1.2.2. Three important educational impacts

1.1.1.3. Types of school choice

1.1.1.3.1. Intersectional school choice

1.1.1.3.2. Intrasectional school choice

1.1.1.3.3. Intradistrict choice plans

1.1.2. Privatization

1.1.2.1. Private educational companies have become involved in public education

1.1.2.2. For profit companies have taken over management of failing school districts

1.1.2.3. States have taken over failing schools and hired management companies as well as universities to manage its schools

1.1.2.4. Success has been mixed as to whether this type of reform is working

1.2. Societal, community, economic and political reforms

1.2.1. Full service schools

1.2.1.1. Focused on meeting the needs of students and their families educational, physical, psychological, and social needs

1.2.1.2. Schools serve as community centers that provide services such as adult education, health clinics, recreation facilities, after school programs, mental health services, drug and alcohol programs, job placement and training and tutoring services

1.2.1.3. Specifically designed to improve at-risk neighborhoods intended to to prevent problems as well as support communities

2. History of US Education

2.1. Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education: May 17, 1954

2.1.1. Ruled that state-imposed segregation in schools was unconstitutional.

2.1.2. Reversed the "separate but equal" doctrine and stated that separate educational institutions are unequal in of themselves.

2.1.3. The decision served to underscore the vast discrepancies between the belief in equality and the reality of inequality.

2.1.4. Brown vs. Board of Education summary

2.2. Historical Interpretation: Conservative Perspective

2.2.1. Believe that the historical pursuit of social and political objectives resulted in significant harm to the traditional academic goals of schooling

2.2.2. Believe that using education to solve social problems has not solved these problems and has instead led to the erosion of educational excellence.

2.2.3. The belief that the evolution of U.S. education has resulted in the dilution of academic excellence.

2.2.4. Believe that the decline of academic quality and goals of education have suffered due to the Liberal movements in education

2.3. 3 Thoughts that have lasted throughout Educational history

2.3.1. Schools have been charged with roles that were once the role of the church, family and community

2.3.2. There is no agreement on the issue of school remorm

2.3.3. They continue to be at the center of larger societal issues

3. Philosophy of Education

3.1. Student-centered: Existentialism

3.2. Key Researchers of Existentalism

3.2.1. Karl Marx, Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gentis, Michael Apple, Paulo Freire and henry Giroux

3.3. Goal of the education system should be to teach and equip students with the knowledge and tools to rise against the ruling class and the capitalist system.

3.4. Role of the teacher is to encourage students to question the current social system and its problems.

3.5. Method of instruction involves individualized instruction with thought provoking activities that promote self awareness, lecturing is minimal.

3.6. Curriculum is self paced, more individual and less group; students are involved in choosing what curriculum is to be used

4. Politics of Education

4.1. The Four Purposes of Schooling

4.1.1. Political Purpose

4.1.1.1. Teach basic social law

4.1.2. Social Purpose

4.1.2.1. Socialize children

4.1.3. Economic Purpose

4.1.3.1. Prepare students to be productive

4.1.4. Intelectual Purpose

4.1.4.1. Teach basic cognitive skills

4.2. Conservative:

4.2.1. Believe individuals have the ability to earn or not earn their place within a free market society based on their own effort and ability

4.2.2. Believe the role of the school is essential to both economic productivity and social stability

4.2.2.1. Should provide the necessary training to ensure that the most hard-working individuals receive the tools necessary to maximize the economic and social productivity

4.2.3. Believe that students rise or fall on their own intelligence, hard work and initiative.

4.2.4. Support a return to basics, traditional curriculum and accountability

4.2.5. Believe the problems in Education stem from a decline of standards, a decline of cultural literacy, a decline of values and a decline of authority.

5. Sociological Perspectives

5.1. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

5.1.1. Employment

5.1.1.1. Higher education leads to higher pay and job status

5.1.2. Knowledge and Attitudes

5.1.2.1. More years of schooling leads to higher knowledge and greater social participation.

5.1.3. Education and Mobility

5.1.3.1. Referred to as "tournament selection " losers are eliminated and the willers continue to compete.

5.1.4. Teacher Behavior

5.1.4.1. Can essentially play major role in the academic knowledge and growth of their students

5.1.4.2. Teacher expectations can be discouraging in keeping students from performing at their full ability

5.1.5. Inadequate Schools

5.1.5.1. Differences in school systems

5.1.5.2. Differences in district finances

5.1.5.3. Urban vs. surburban vs. private education

5.1.6. De Facto Segregation

5.1.6.1. Swan v. Charlotte Mecklenburg: ruling in favor of the Swan family, the city of Charlotte implemented a bus route strategy that integrated the school system.

5.1.6.2. De Facto Segregation in education is the unintended segregation that happens when a large population of an ethnic group lives in one particular area,, this causes segregation "by fact" versus "by law". This happens especially in urban areas.

5.2. Teacher uses for Sociology

5.2.1. Create better learning environments

5.2.2. Better understand how students learn

5.3. Education Theoretical Perspectives

5.3.1. Functional Theories

5.3.1.1. Society is a machine; the parts work together to effectively run society

5.3.1.2. Moral values are essential for society to run harmoniously

5.3.1.3. Reform should create programs and curriculum that promote shared moral values and unity

5.3.2. Conflict Theories

5.3.2.1. In disagreement with Functional Theorists

5.3.2.2. Schools select and groom students for the workforce according to their knowledge and skills

5.3.2.3. Believe the education system is teaching, with a "hidden curriculum" the working class to be subordinate to the upperclass and work to maintain inequality

5.3.3. Interactional Theories

5.3.3.1. Examines both the Functional and Conflict theories at a deeper level, bringing forth how the everyday interactions of, and with, students and teachers can be impacting the students on a bigger scale.

6. Schools as Organizations

6.1. US Department of Education

6.1.1. Developed in 1980

6.1.2. Main function is to establish and maintain policies to improve and protect America's schools and to ensure equal access for all children to adequate education

6.1.3. Under the direction of President Reagan and ED Secretary Terrel Bell published "A Nation At Risk" in April 1983. The report spurred reforms such as the now defunct "No Child Left Behind" act.

6.2. Private School Education

6.2.1. Approximately 28,000 elementary and private schools in the US enrolling 5.5 mil students

6.2.2. Mostly affiliated to religious organizations

6.2.3. Little to no oversight by the state due to the Separation of Church and State and rulings of the US Supreme Court

6.2.4. Many reports show that private education breeds a higher level of academic excellence and many believe this is due in part to the competitiveness to gain students and staff. Some believe this could lead to an increase of educational and socioeconomic segregation.

6.3. Limestone County School District zone 8

6.3.1. State Senator Bill Hotzclaw

6.3.2. US Education Secretary Betsy Devos

6.3.3. State Representative Phillip Williamw

6.3.4. State Superintendent Michael Sentance

6.3.5. State School Board Representative Mary Scott Hunter

6.3.6. Limestone County School Superintendent Tom Sisk

6.3.7. Local School Board Representative Anthony Hilliard

6.4. Schools have increasingly become centralized, meaning school districts have become larger, schools and classrooms have be come smaller and school boards and superintendents have become more powerful and teachers have less of a say on policies or curriculum

6.5. Willard Waller: a sociologist that states that the school is a social organism

6.5.1. School Processes: powerful cultural qualities of schools that make them so potent in terms of emotional recall or cognitive outcomes

6.5.2. Schools are separate social organizations because:

6.5.2.1. They have a definite population

6.5.2.2. They have a clearly defined political structure

6.5.2.3. The represent the nexus of a compact network of social relationships

6.5.2.4. They are pervaded by a "we feeling"

6.5.2.5. They have a culture that is definitely their own

6.6. Max Weber: school sociologist

6.6.1. Suggests that bureaucracies (schools) are an attempt to rationalize and organize human behavior in order to achieve certain goals

6.6.2. Bureaucracies are characterized by rules and regulations that promote predictability and minimize the significance of personal relatioships

6.6.3. Rules are designed to enforce fairness

6.6.4. Bureaucracies can suppress individualism, spontaneity, initiative, creativity which can impede learning

6.6.5. Can be destructive to the freedom that is required by teachers and students if they are to develop intellectually and personally

6.7. "Schools of Tomorrow...Today" by the New York City Teachers Center Consortium

7. Curriculum and Pedagogy

7.1. Curriculum Theories

7.1.1. Humanist Curriculum

7.1.1.1. Believe schools should teach have a curriculum heavy in the studies of the liberal arts

7.1.1.2. Believe in the transference of a common body of knowledge in order to reproduce a common cultural heritage

7.1.1.3. Idealistic philosophy

7.1.2. Social Efficiency Curriculum

7.1.2.1. Pragmatic Philosophy

7.1.2.2. Rooted in the belief that different groups with different sets of needs should have different types of schooling

7.1.2.3. Views school as a mechanism to adjust the individual to society

7.1.2.4. Students are divided into different curriculum groups based on ability

7.1.2.5. Ability is defined by student performance on standardized tests and students are placed in different curriculum tracks in a fair and meritocratic manner

7.1.2.6. Conservatives argue that separation of curriculum into different tracks has lead to the denigration of the traditional purpose of schooling.

7.1.2.7. Radicals argue that the curriculum trac placement is based on race, class, gender and has limited the life chances of minority, working class and female students.

7.1.3. Developmentalist Curriculum

7.1.3.1. Relates to the needs and interests of the students rather than the needs of the society

7.1.3.2. Emanating from Dewey's take on the relationship between the child and the curriculum

7.1.3.3. Stresses flexibility in what is taught and how it is taught

7.1.3.4. Emphasis is on the development of each student's individual abilities and the importance of relating schooling to the life of the student in a way that would make learning and education meaningful.

7.1.3.5. Romantic Progressivism

7.1.3.5.1. A.S. Neill: founder of Summerhill School, 1950's and 60's, a boarding school which followed this method, had no curriculum and became a prototype of open and free schools of the period

7.1.4. Social Meliorist Curriculum

7.1.4.1. Developed in the 1930's out of the writings of Dewey

7.1.4.2. philosophically social reconstructionist curriculum

7.1.4.3. Concerned with the role of schools in reforming society believe schools should teach students to think and help societies problems

7.2. Dominant Teaching Theories

7.2.1. Mimetic tradition

7.2.1.1. Based on the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to transmit knowledge

7.2.1.2. Didactic Method is the best method to do this

7.2.1.3. Stresses the importance of rational sequencing in the process and assessment of the learning process

7.2.2. Transformative tradition

7.2.2.1. Believe that the purpose of education is to change the student in a meaningful way intellectually, creatively, spiritually and emotionally

7.2.2.2. Provide a more multidimensional theory of teaching

7.2.2.3. The process of teaching involves more conversation between the and student to ensure the student becomes an integral part of the learning process

7.2.2.4. Tends to reject the scientific models of teaching and instead views teaching as an artistic endeavor

8. Equality of Opportunity

8.1. Coleman Study 1982: High School Achievement: Public, Catholic, and Private Schools Compared; findings were thar of public and private school sophomores private school students scored higher in every subject. Coleman and his colleagues argued that provate schools were more effective environments because they place more emphasis on academic achievement and enforce discipline consistent with student achievement: private schools demand more from their students

8.1.1. Round one response

8.1.1.1. Jencks (1985) used Coleman's findings to calculate average yearly achievement gain by public and Catholic school students, he found differences in learning do exist but they are negligible

8.1.1.2. Chubb & Moe, 1990 found that private schools seem to "do it better" particularly for low income students

8.1.1.3. Catholic schools seem to advantage low income minority students

8.1.2. Round two response

8.1.2.1. Borman and Dowling partially confirm both Coleman's findings

8.1.2.2. Where an individual goes to school is related to their race and socioeconomic background but the racial and scoieconomic composition of a school has a greater on student achievement than an individual's race and class

8.1.2.3. Argue that race and class are predictors of academic success

8.1.2.4. Argue that school segregation based on race and socioeconomic status and within school interactions dominated by middle class values are largely responsible for gaps in student achievement

8.1.2.5. Education reform mist focus on eliminating the high level of segregation that remains in the Inited States educational system and that schools must bring an end to tracking systems and biases that favor white and middle lass students

8.2. Educational outcome based on Class, Race and Gender

8.2.1. Race

8.2.1.1. Minorities have lower SAT scores that of white students therefore have fewer opportunities to attend college and be awarded scholarships

8.2.1.2. Minority students receive fewer and inferior educational opportunities than white students

8.2.1.3. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities ad whites and their rewards for educational attainment are significantly less

8.2.2. Class

8.2.2.1. Education os expensive, the longer a student stays in school the more parental financial support os needed

8.2.2.2. Families in the upper middle class re mor likely to expect their children to finish school where lower and underclass families have lower expectations for their children

8.2.2.3. Number of books in a families home is related to the academic achievement of its children

8.2.2.4. Teachers often label children based on language used and ostensibly according to their abilities (middle class English is seen as an educational asset)

8.2.2.5. Directly related to achievement on reading and basic skills tests upper and middle class routinely score higher as well as enroll and attend college while working and under class students underachieve, drop out and resist the curriculum of the school

8.2.3. Gender

8.2.3.1. Females are less likely to drop out pf school than men

8.2.3.2. Females are likely to have a higher level of reading and writing proficiency than males

8.2.3.3. Males outperform females in math

8.2.3.4. Explanations to the above are thought to be related to classroom teachers who assume females will to do as well as males in math

8.2.3.5. Males are more limited to score higher on The SAT

8.2.3.6. More females are attending higher education institutions but the schools attended are less academically or socially prestigious than those attended by males

8.2.3.7. There are significant advantages for men when competing for the most prestigious academic prizes

9. Educational Inequality

9.1. Sociologicial theories of education

9.1.1. Functionalists

9.1.1.1. Believe the role of schools is to provide a fair selection process for sorting out the best and brightest individuals

9.1.1.2. Expect the schooling process to produce unequal results but that they should be based on individual differences not on group differences.

9.1.1.3. Believe that unequal educational outcomes are the result of unequal educational opportunities.

9.1.2. Conflict Theorists

9.1.2.1. Believe that the role of schools are to reproduce rather than eliminate inequality also that educational outcomes are based on family background

9.1.2.2. Concerned with both equality of opportunity and results

9.1.2.3. Call for more radical measures to reduce inequality and a more skeptical that the problem can be resolved

9.1.3. Interactionist theory

9.1.3.1. Suggest a need to understand the interaction within families in order to comprehend the reasons of academic success and failures

9.2. Student-centered explanations

9.2.1. Cultural Difference Theories

9.2.1.1. Working class and non-white students arrive with a disadvantage not because of differences in their home life but because of being Part of an oppressed minority

9.2.1.2. Theorists acknowledge the impact of differences, do. Ot blame working-class and nonwhite families rather they attribute cultural differences to social forces such as poverty, racism, discrimination and unequal life changes

9.2.2. Cultural Deprivation Theories:

9.2.2.1. Suggests that working-class and nonwhite families lack cultural resources such as books and begin school at a disadvantage

9.2.2.2. Assert that the poor have a deprived culture that lacks the values of middle-class culture such as hard work, initiative, and the importance of schooling.

9.2.2.3. Believe this deprivation results in educationally disadvantaged students who achieve poorly because they have not been raised to acquire the skills and dispositions required for achievement

9.3. School-Centered Explanations

9.3.1. School Financing

9.3.1.1. Vast differences in funding between affluent and poor districts due to unequal property tax revenue

9.3.1.2. Families in more affluent communities have higher incomes and pay proportionately less of their incomes for their higher school taxes

9.3.1.3. More affluent communities are able to provide mor per-pupil spending than poorer districts

9.3.2. Between- School Differences

9.3.2.1. Theorists believe there are significant differences between the culture and climate of schools in lower socioeconomic and higher socioeconomic communities

9.3.2.2. Schools in middle-class communities are more likely to have less authoritarian and more student-centered pedagogic class practices

9.3.2.3. Upper-class students are more likely to attend elite private schools with authoritarian pedagogic practices and a classical-humanistic college prep curriculum

9.3.2.4. Research on the relationship between schooling and life expectations suggests that schooling can elevate or limit student aspirations about the future

9.3.3. Within-School Differences

9.3.3.1. Different groups of students in the same school preform differently

9.3.3.2. Research on the self-fulfilling prophecy of teacher expectations point to the impact of teacher expectations and ability grouping on student aspirations and achievement at the elementary level

9.3.3.3. Teacher perception of students and their abilities have an impact on what is taught, how it is taught and student performance

9.3.3.4. Differences in tracts help to explain the variations in academic achievement of students in different tracts

9.3.3.5. Differences in the curriculum and pedagogic practices between tracts are partly responsible for the diverse academic achievement of students in different tracts

9.3.3.6. More working-class and nonwhite in lower tracts is evidence that such school related practices have a significant effect on their academic achievement

9.3.4. Gender and Schooling

9.3.4.1. Schooling often limits the educational opportunities and life changes of women

9.3.4.2. Boys and girls are socialized differently through a variety of school processes

9.3.4.3. Curriculum materials portray men's and women's roles in stereotypical and traditional ways

9.3.4.4. Traditional curriculum silences women by omitting aspects of womenswear history and lives from discussion

9.3.4.5. The hidden curriculum reinforces traditional gender roles and expectations through classroom organization, instructional practices and classroom interactions