My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. History of U.S. Education

1.1. School’s/ Education’s Responsibility

1.1.1. Schooling has historically been in response to the uncertainty that family, church, or community could not provide the necessary tools needed to meet the needs of a literate person in a democratic society

1.1.2. The school serves as the focal point for addressing societal issues.

1.1.3. There is little consensus on motives for school reform.

1.2. Public Education

1.2.1. Colonial Era Old Deluder Satan Law 1647 50 or more house holds had to provide education for children Massachusetts School Law of 1647 100 or more had to build a school for children Franklin saw education to support trades and common man. Jefferson supported public education. Age of Reform: The Rise of the Common School Horace Mann lobbied to create the first state board of education. (created in 1837 in Mass.) Normal schools were created for teacher education. (Mass 1839) Public education was for public stability and social mobility. Urbanization and the Progressive Impetus John Dewey, the father of modern education, emphasized the needs of the individual to create a better society Morrill Act est. land grants in each county and state for public education. (1862) Emma Hart Willard, Troy University, 1821. Established the first college for African Americans Progressive Movement Curriculum supports the needs of the child and thus gives knowledge/insight to human history and promotes impetus for change and betterment of society. Education for All John Dewey-Progressivism The Committee of Ten, 1893

1.2.2. Post World War II 1945-1980 The battle; standards of an education versus the education opportunity for all. Cycles of Reform Progressive v. Traditional Plessy v. Ferguson of 1896 Brown v. Topeka Board of Education 1954

1.2.3. Reforms of the Standards Era 1980’s to present day Mid 1960’s emphasis went back to individual needs due to the Civil Rights Act 1963. Elementary/Secondary Education Act 1965 provided for special needs students. Nation at Rick (Reagon) Educating everyone and we where falling behind Goals 2000 (Clinton) NCLB (Bush) No Child Left Behind RTT (Obama) Race To the Top Three Historical Perspectives of U.S. Education Democratic-Liberal School Radical-Revisionist School Conservative School

1.3. Chapter 3 mindmeister assignments

1.3.1. Choose and describe a reform movement that you think has had the most influence on education. The Post-World War II equity Era 1945-1980 These is referred to as the progressive eta, and that's the way I believe I tent to lean The demand for the expansion of educational opportunity became the most prominent feature of educational reform. Equality of opportunity

1.3.2. Choose and describe one historical interpretation of U.S. Education. Brown v. Topeka Board of Education 1954 Said separated but equal was unconstitutional

2. Politics of Education

2.1. Perspective

2.1.1. Conservation

2.1.2. Liberal Role of the school I feel the role of the school is to offer equal opportunity to each student no matter their ethnical or environment back ground. Explanation of unequal performance I feel that if there is equal opportunity then performance should be individual based. Educational problems Lack of equality in the school Lack of technology in the classrooms Lack of extracurricular example: clubs, and sports Ineffective leadership

2.1.3. Radical

2.1.4. Neo-Liberal

2.2. Purposes of School

2.2.1. Intellectual cognitive skills in math, reading, science, history, language.

2.2.2. Political to indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism

2.2.3. Social to help people be socialable, productive members of soiciety

2.2.4. Econmic prepare students for their occupation

2.3. I align with the Liberal perspective

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Sociology definition

3.1.1. Understanding how social aspiration and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live

3.2. Highly effective schools which include;

3.2.1. 1. Strong leadership

3.2.2. 2. A safe and orderly environment

3.2.3. 3. High expectations that all can learn

3.2.4. 4. Continual review of student progress

3.2.5. 5. Clear mission

3.3. Research shows that the teacher is the single most important part of the child's education.

3.4. What is the goal of education?

3.4.1. Perhaps training people for employment or for thinking?

3.5. Chapter 4 mindmeister assignments

3.5.1. 1. Define each of the theoretical perspectives concerning the relationship between school and society: functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionalism Functional poses that society is best when a consensus rules. Conflict poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate groups. Interactional poses that society develops as a result of interactions between students and teachers. Conflict- schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. They are forced to attend. College degrees are primarily status symbols and do not indicate actual achievement. Where you go to school can determine your success more than achievement Interactional theorist suggest that schools are; middle class organizations lower social classes are at a disadvantage. speech patterns are a reflection of social class backgrounds

3.5.2. 2. Identify and describe 5 effects of schooling on individuals that you think have the greatest impact on students as explained in the book 1. Inside the Schools p. 123 Curriculum is determined by those who want to perpetuate certain values and beliefs. Not all students study the same curriculum Curriculum determines who goes to college. Cultural transmission, selective channeling of opportunity and social mobility are determined at the school level and its curriculum 2. Teacher Behavior p.124 Teachers may have as many as 1000 interactions with students on a daily basis. Teacher expectations directly influence student achievement. Self-fulfilling prophecy has a direct impact on student success. The more teachers demanded from their students results in higher student self esteem and success 3. Education and Inequality p.125 American society resembles a triangle where most people are at the base. The top 20% in the U.S. possess 75% of the wealth. The top 2% of the world possess 80% of the wealth. Are social classes perpetuated by society and schools? 4. Inside the Schools p. 123 Curriculum is determined by those who want to perpetuate certain values and beliefs. Not all students study the same curriculum Curriculum determines who goes to college. Cultural transmission, selective channeling of opportunity and social mobility are determined at the school level and its curriculum 5. Gender Biases Men are still paid more for equivalent jobs. Academics are leveling between the sexes. Schools are still perpetuating gender inequalities

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. Those powers not mentioned in the constitution are explicitly delegated to the states. Each state is responsible for education.

4.2. Key to teaching is exercising control.

4.3. Chapter 6 assignments

4.3.1. The major stakeholders in my district State Senator Paul Bussman House of Representatives Randall Shedd Ed Henry Corey Harbison Alabama State Superintendent Michael Sentence Cullman County State representative on the state school board Cullman County Superintedent Shane Barnette Cullman County School Board Members Wayne Myrex Chris Carter Jason Speegle Kenny Brockman Heath Allbright Mike Graves Gene Sullins

4.3.2. Identify and describe the elements of change within school processes and school cultures Schools are separate social organizations because 1. They have definitive populations 2. They have political structures 3. They represent a multitude of social groups 4. They are prevailed by the "we feeling" 5. They have their own special culture Effecting change in schools is difficult at its minimum Bureaucracies control everything focusing on rules, regulations and conformity Bureaucratic rationality suppress creativity Changing a school culture requires patience, skill and good will "Schools of Tomorrow...Todays Project" In New York City Schools focuses on child-centered teaching Changing a school 1. Conflict is a necessary part of change 2. New behaviors must be learned 3. Team building must extend to all parts. 4. Process and content are interrelated

5. Philosophy of Education

5.1. Describe the particular world view of one of student-centered philosophy of education (pragmatism or existentialism). Include the following information

5.1.1. Pragmatism key researchers John Dewey (the father of education) John Locke , a realist, suggest students are blank slates, tabula rasa goal of education What has meaning and value is the basic foundation of education. Find processes that work in order to achieve the desired ends. Experience is key to relevance of study. The contemporary issues are most important . What will work to solve the problem. If it works it is valid. role of teacher The teacher is to present ideas and information to help students think , evaluate and determine a course of action method of instruction Problem solving or inquiry method. Test and re -test to learn. Formal instruction does not exist as the norm Group activities, individual study is encouraged. The classroom is changeable according to needs. curriculum Core subjects as well as electives are all integrated. Learning and teaching using all subject areas. Teaching across the curriculum. Schools are created to meet the needs of students and society.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

6.1.1. * What is taught and how do we teach it? * Social Influences * Political influences * Societies’ influences * Cultural influences + Special interests

6.1.2. * Sociology of the curriculum * Society influences the curriculum * Formal curriculum – what is cognitively taught (subjects) * Informal or Hidden curriculum – taught but not obvious to sight * Null curriculum – what is not taught but is learned (values of the community)

6.1.3. * Pedagogic Influences * Mimetic and Transformative approaches to teaching * Mimetic is conservative and says that there is a basic core of knowledge to be learned by all. * Transformative says that students needs should be the main focus of the curriculum. P. 296

6.1.4. * Student centered or teacher centered. P. 298 * Stratification of the Curriculum * Students are tracked and directed to a specific curriculum such as advanced diplomas and vocational diplomas *Tracking begins in elementary and continues through secondary by means of testing. P. 299

6.1.5. * The Effects of the Curriculum * Do students actually learn what is taught? P. 300 * What is learned and what is taught may have a large gap between them. * Closing the gap and how? * Schooling does have an impact on learning. * Effective school characteristics. P 301 * Do all students have the same educational experience even though they attend the same classes.

6.1.6. Common Vision, Student progress monitored, Strong Leadership, Safe environment, High expectations

6.2. Chapter 7 assignments

6.2.1. 1. Explain a curriculum theory which you advocate (humanist, social efficiency, developmentalist, or social meliorist). I advocate the social efficiency curriculum * Social Efficiency Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive. * Different needs for different people was their concern for curriculum * Social Efficiency became the cornerstone of Progressivism

6.2.2. 2. Identify and describe the two dominant traditions of teaching. 1. Mimetic tradition Its based on the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students. The best method of doing this is through what is termed the didactic method, a method that commonly relies on the lecture or presentation as the main form of communication. 2. Transformative tradition Proponents of this tradition believe that the purpose of education is to change the students in some meaningful way, including intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally. transformative educators do not see the transmission of knowledge as the only component of education and thus they provide a more multidimensional theory of teaching They reject the authoritarian relationship between teacher and student and argue instead that teaching and learning are inextricably linked

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Public education has been conceived as a social vehicle for minimizing the importance of wealth and class as a determinant of who shall get ahead.

7.2. Social stratification – three systems Caste- a persons’ social level is determined by race or religion. Estate systems – a persons’ social level is determined by family value and worth. Class systems – a persons’ worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement.

7.3. The lower classes in America have had their ability to overcome decreased because of inflation. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class. Educational achievement is directly related to financial success

7.4. Class Schools represent the middle and upper class. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance

7.5. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA. Education of Handicapped 1975. IDEA 1996 REI – Regular Educational Initiative or mainstreaming

7.6. IDEA 1996

7.6.1. Section 504

7.6.2. Special ED

7.7. The Coleman Study 1966 Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools. As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle and upper class to improve their educational success.

7.8. Educational Attainment and Economic Achievement College graduates have higher salaries. The amount of education is directly related to life chances. Life chances are directly related to social level and race; however, schools do have a slight impact.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Unequal Educational Achievement

8.1.1. * Sociological Explanations of Inequality* ** Functionalist Theorists support the idea that each students’ success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed. ** Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment. ** Interactionists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment.

8.1.2. Other factors that influence student success are; - Student-centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture and the student. - School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations.

8.1.3. Student Centered Explanations - Genetic Differences Explanations - Cultural Deprivation Explanations - Cultural Differences Explanations

8.1.4. *** School Centered Explanations *** School Financing Effective Schools Between School Differences **** Curriculum and Pedagogic *** Within School Differences *** Curriculum and Ability Grouping ***

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Characteristics of highly effective teachers

9.1.1. A ‘Calling’ for the profession Professional knowledge Personal qualities With-it-ness Instructional Effectiveness Good communicator Street smart Willing to go the extra mile Lifelong learner

9.1.2. Two Waves of Attack The first was concerned with accountability and achievement. The second was concerned with the processes of the school. Top down management from the federal government

9.1.3. Federal Involvement Nation At Risk Goals 2000 No Child Left Behind Race To The Top

9.1.4. Approaches to Reform Neo Liberal Approach Societal And Community Approach

9.1.5. School Based Reforms School Choice Charter Schools Tuition Vouchers Intersectional Choice Plans (public to private) Intrasectional Choice Plans (any public school in district)

9.1.6. Teacher Education Programs Three Major Points 1. More intellectual demands in education programs 2. Attract and retain competent teachers 3. Reorganize educational academic and professional development plan Teacher Quality The Effective School Movement Highly Effective School Characteristics

10. Limits and Promises

10.1. The Four Elements of Foundation of Education

10.1.1. History of Education Out Purpose The: To read the Bible to save our souls (old Deleuter Act 1642) Our Purpose Now Transmit culture Prepare for a global economy Prepare for the workforce Become a productive citizen Become a social citizen Pursuit of happiness Pursuit of freedom Pursuit of knowledge Pursuit of Life

10.1.2. Philosophy of Education Questions to ask yourself; 1 How will you teach 2 What is in the curriculum 3 Who are you as a teacher 4 Who are your students 5 What does your classroom look like? 6 How will you assess students?

10.1.3. Politics of Education 1 How democratic are out schools 2 Who is involved in decision making? 3 What determines out curriculum? 4 what roles does special interest groups have? Business Labor union Colleges World events Religion

10.1.4. Sociology of Education 1. Are schools a reflection of our society/community ? 2. How does the impact of social expectations drive decision making socially ? 3. Are schools perpetuating the social class/community it serves?

10.2. The Achievement gaps

10.2.1. 1 Elementary Secondary Education Act 1965

10.2.2. 2 Tried to erase discrepancies in opportunities

10.2.3. 3 NCLB re-established these efforts in 2001

10.2.4. 4 Because of testing, teaching gaps have widened

10.2.5. 5 Causes are due to funding. environment, teacher quality, parents etc.

10.3. Educational Problems

10.3.1. Crisis in Urban Education 1 Demographic Trend 2 Social Stratification 3 Socioeconomic/Academic Achievement 4 Inequalities in School System Education Accountablity Act of 2013 5 School Choice is an Issue

10.3.2. Decline in Literacy 1 Basic Skills of Fundemenatlas 2 Teaching to the Test 3 Pass them on due to age and no place to go 4 Schools become over-crowded 5 Raising Academic Standards (for whom)

10.3.3. Assessment issues 1 Teaching to the Test 2 Authentic/True Assessments 3 Questions to ask our selves 1 What have we measured? 2 How do we used our data? 3 What does the curriculum look like

10.4. Foundations of Your Personal Education

10.4.1. Questions to ask yourself; Why am I a teacher? what do I want to accomplish in my life? What kind of influence will I be? What values do I want my students to have as a result of my influence?

11. Legal Issues in Education

11.1. Teacher Negligence of Duties

11.1.1. * Contributory negligence is neglecting your and others’ safety. • Comparative negligence is having equal contributions to an injury. • Assumption of risk is having known that an activity could cause injury.

11.1.2. Supervise students at all times. Do not take any thing for granted. “I was just out of the room for a second”. This statement has been the demise and costly for many educators.

11.2. Reporting Child Abuse

11.2.1. Teachers are obligated to report suspected child abuse either mental or physical. Suggested guidelines to follow • Report the suspected abuse to the guidance counselor, principal or DHR. • Document the action you have taken. (Document time, date, name of student, suspected abuse or symptoms and to whom you reported). * Follow-up on the situation.

11.3. Harassment (sexual or other forms of harassment)

11.3.1. Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools (1992) U.S. Supreme Court. Vance v. Spencer County Public Schools 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals (2000).

11.3.2. • Educators can be held liable if they show an indifference to a student’s or teacher’s complaint.

11.4. Students Cheating on Tests (5th and 14th Amendment)

11.4.1. Due Process (procedural and substantive) 1. Procedural due process is notice, hearing and explanation. 2. Substantive due process is “what is fair” not capricious or arbitrary.

11.4.2. Suggested guidelines to follow • Allow the student to finish the test or assignment. • Confront the student after class or take them to the principal immediately. • Do not grade that test or assignment. Arrange for another test or assignment if you consider this a viable option.* • Never take up a test or assignment and give a “0” without allowing the student to explain. “Snatch and File 13”

11.4.3. * Recently, a school board reversed a teacher’s and principal’s decision to give students a “0” for plagiarism. Both teacher and principal resigned because of the circumstances.

11.5. Corporal Punishment (8th, 5th or 14th Amendment)

11.5.1. Ingraham v. Wright (1977) is the Supreme Court decision that allows for corporal punishment in schools. Hinson v. Holt, Court of Civil Appeals of AL. (1998). Baker v. Owen (1975) ruled that parents could not dictate to school officials not to paddle their child. Some schools acknowledge these requests, but do not guarantee their child will not be paddled. Suggested guidelines . • Always follow board policy • Use another form of punishment if available. • Have a professional witness (another teacher). • Use a reasonable paddle. The principal should determine size restrictions of a paddle. • Document all action taken. • Never paddle when angry or in doubt of a student’s guilt.

11.5.2. School officials are usually protected if school board policy is followed; however, a person’s character and good name are “up for grabs” by any unscrupulous person.

11.6. Search and Seizure (4th Amendment)

11.6.1. T.L.O. v. New Jersey (1985) is the Supreme Court decision that all cases are tested against. T.L.O was suspended for cigarettes and her purse was searched for other contraband. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the school. Thomas v. Roberts, 2001 (11th Cir. August 15, 2001). Principals and teachers have the power to search based on reasonable suspicion. Police must have probable cause Suggested guidelines • Do not search a student or locker without a witness. • Have reliable information before searching. • Do not search the entire class indiscriminately. • Do not conduct a strip search (imminent danger must be present). • When in doubt, refer to the principal.

11.7. IDEA (Special Education and Section 504)

11.7.1. • Identify your students who are receiving services by contacting your counselor, principal or special education teacher. • Each teacher is responsible for knowing which students receive services. • Follow the IEP, 504 Plan, BIP or BBSST recommendations.

11.8. Freedom of Expression - First Amendment

11.8.1. Tinker v. Des Moines – Students does not leave their rights at the school house door.