Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Chapter 2: Politics of Education

1.1. Traditional vision of expectations- Expect schools to pass down traditional views like hard work, unity, and initiative. Conservatives and Liberals support this vision.

1.2. Three perspectives

1.2.1. Conservative- *originates in the 19th century. *Influence by social Darwinist thoughts and policies provided by Charles Darwin. *Economic views are based on the writings of Adam Smith. *Became popular during Ronald Reagan's presidency.

1.2.1.1. The Role of School: Providing the necessary educational training so the most talented and hard-working get the information needed to enhance social and economic productivity. The role is also to socialize children into appropriate roles so that social order is sustained.

1.2.1.2. Explanations of Unequal Performances: Conservatives believe that success depends on a person's own intelligence and hard work. They believe if children don't succeed in school it is because they cannot meet society demands. Lastly, they believe the strongest and most intelligent children will survive; therefore, no change in academics should be made to help the other children learn.

1.2.1.3. Definition of Educational Problems: 1. The decline of standards- schools lowered standards and quality while trying to incorporate equality. 2. The decline of cultural literacy- use of less traditional curriculum, so it's harder and harder to pass down American and Western Civilization heritage. This is because schools are too busy incorporating other cultures. 3. The decline of values or of civilization- no longer teach traditional moral and values because they look at all cultures as equal. 4. The decline of authority- schools are more chaotic with less discipline because they are trying to increase individuality and freedom. 5. Schools are not sufficient because of state control and immunity to the laws of a competitive free market.

1.2.2. Liberals- *originates in the 20th century. *Thoughts and policies are based off of John Dewey, and it became popular during Franklin Delano Roosevelt's presidency. *Associated with the New Deal era. *Views are based on economic theories of John Maynard Keynes.

1.2.2.1. The Role of School: Liberals believe schools should provide educational training equally to all students. They believe cultural diversity should be taught. Lastly, they believe schools should help children discover their own talents, creativity, and sense of self.

1.2.2.2. Explanations of Unequal Performances: Liberals believe schools are not doing a good enough job at increasing equality; therefore, low socioeconomic children are left out and tend to do worse in school. They also believe that some academic disadvantages are caused by life changes.

1.2.2.3. Definition of Educational Problems: 1. The poor and minority children are limited by schools causing underachievement. 2. Students are limited when trying to develop a sense of individuality because of discipline and authority. 3. The quality of schools differ depending on socioeconomic backgrounds. 4. Traditional curriculum does not teach to diverse cultures.

1.2.3. Radicals- *Based on the 19th century writings of Karl Marx; a German political economist and philosopher.

1.2.3.1. The Role of School: Radicals believe schools should bring equal opportunities to every child. They also believe schools should educate for upward mobility because schools need change to be effective.

1.2.3.2. Explanations of Unequal Performances: Radicals believe that schools do not provide equal opportunities. They also believe that schools and education are not the cause failure; the economic system is responsible.

1.2.3.3. Definition of Educational Problems: 1. Radicals believe that poor, minorities, and women are let down by the educational policies. 2. Schools do not teach the real problems of American society because they teach to comfort. 3. Traditional curriculum new cultures, histories, and voices to be heard. 4. Educational system provides inequality of opportunities and results.

1.3. Progressivism Vision of Education- Expect schools move forward. Teach how to solve social problems essential for development of student potential while being part of a democratic society. Radical and Liberals support this vision of Education.

1.4. Education-includes anything that happens in life that teaches a person knowledge, skills, or values.

1.5. Four Purposes of Education

1.5.1. Political: To teach or mold patriotism ( existing political order). Also to teach each child the basic laws of society.

1.5.2. Social: To help solve social problems. To incorporate social cohesion. To socialize children into various roles, behaviors, and values of society (known as SOCIALIZATION).

1.5.3. Economic: To prepare children and young teens for occupation. To select, train, and allocate them.

1.5.4. Intellectual: To teach basic cognitive skills (reading and writing). To transmit knowledge (history). To teach higher-order thinking (analysis, evaluation, synthesis).

1.6. Schooling- Only deals with what happens inside the school. How education happens within the school.

2. Chapter 3: History of Education

2.1. Progressive Reform

2.1.1. Insisted on government regulation of industry, commerce, and the nation's natural resources. Also insisted that government be more concerned with welfare of the citizens than the welfare of corporations.

2.1.2. Also many foreigners were immigrating to the country, so schools had to incorporate hygiene and social skills as curriculum.

2.1.3. Shaped by John Dewey

2.1.3.1. Sadovnik, Cookson, and Semel (2014) stated, "Distressed with the abrupt dislocation of families from rural to urban environments, concerned with the loss of traditional ways of understanding the maintenance of civilization, and anxious about the effects unleashed individualism and rampant materialism would have on a democratic society, Dewey sought answers in pedagogic practice."

2.1.4. Child-centered Reform

2.1.4.1. Founded by G. Stanley Hall

2.1.4.2. Believed that schools should incorporate curriculum around the developmental stages of children.

2.1.4.3. Believed schools needed to individualize curriculum and tailor the curriculum to the child's interests.

2.1.5. Shaped by Horace Mann

2.1.5.1. Saw schools as a means for promoting democracy to insure social order.

2.1.6. Social-engineering Reform

2.1.6.1. Proposed by Edward L. Thorndike

2.1.6.2. Believed education could alter human nature for better or for worse.

2.1.6.3. Believed educators should be socially efficient

2.1.6.4. Believed education should be meaningful and prepare students to make a living.

2.2. Historical interpretation of the Democratic-Liberal School

2.2.1. *Consistently concerned with the balance of equality and equity.

2.2.2. The Common School Era was seen as a success for this group because it was the first time education was meant for all to have. Furthermore, this era moved forward in trying to limit educational that only the "elite" could participate in.

3. Chapter 5: Philosophy of Education

3.1. Pragmatism- *Developed in the 19th century. *Founded by George Sonders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. *Sadovnik, Cookson, and Semel (2015) state, "pragmatism is a philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve their desired ends."

3.1.1. Generic Notions

3.1.1.1. John Dewey had the biggest impact on this section.

3.1.1.2. Believed in progress and growth.

3.1.1.3. Believed society could be changed by education.

3.1.1.4. Pushed for schools to become an "embryonic community" where students can experiment while sticking to tradition and learning to participate in a democracy.

3.1.1.5. Associated with progressive reform.

3.1.1.6. Believed education could shape social order.

3.1.1.7. Believed education should be tailored to the development and interests of the children.

3.1.2. Key Researchers

3.1.2.1. George Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey- founders

3.1.2.2. Possible pragmatics- Frances Bacon, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau

3.1.2.3. William James- known for describing pragmatism with a bible phrase

3.1.3. Goal of education

3.1.3.1. Improving social order-believed that everything in education should aim to positively progress society.

3.1.3.2. Meet the needs of the community and balance it with the needs of society.

3.1.3.3. Growth and progress.

3.1.4. Role of teacher

3.1.4.1. The teacher does not play the role of just the "boss"

3.1.4.2. The teacher is an encourager, counselor, questioner of students, and planner of curriculum.

3.1.5. Method of instruction

3.1.5.1. Believed in independent and group study.

3.1.5.2. Start education by letting students state what they would like to know.

3.1.5.3. Use problem-solving or inquiry method.

3.1.5.4. Original/traditional instruction methods are abandoned.

3.1.5.5. Furniture is moveable.

3.1.6. Curriculum

3.1.6.1. Core/integrated curriculum

3.1.6.2. Every subject area is related to one certain interest or project.

3.1.6.3. This philosophy believes in 1st reviewing then moving to the knew knowledge.

3.1.6.4. Should be tailored to student needs.

4. Chapter 4: Sociology of Education

4.1. Theory- Sadovnik, Cookson, Semel (2015) stated, "...Theory is an integration of all known principles, laws, and information pertaining to a specific area of study.

4.1.1. Functional Theories

4.1.1.1. Believes that society depends on education. Education functions with society, and society cannot be shaped without education.

4.1.1.2. One of the first people to shape this theory was Emile Durkheim who believed education maintained social order.

4.1.1.3. Believe schools should socialize and group students according to their academic and no academic abilities.

4.1.1.4. Believes each aspect of schooling should be challenging, appropriate, and incorporate social order and unity.

4.1.2. Conflict Theories

4.1.2.1. Believes education does not directly impact society. Believes in no relation tween school and society.

4.1.2.2. Believes society is dependent on economic, political, cultural, and military power.

4.1.2.3. Sees schools as asocial struggle because there is always a higher power in control.

4.1.2.4. Shaped by Karl Marx- believed that social order/class could not be changed by education because the lower class would always be left out.

4.1.2.5. Also shaped by max Weber, Willard Waller, and Randall Collins.

4.1.2.6. Believes there are many social and emotional inequalities between schools and society.

4.1.3. Interactional Theories

4.1.3.1. A mixture of functional and conflict theories.

4.1.3.2. Believes in a relationship between school and society, but believes the interactional all and educational systems need to be continuously analyzed.

4.2. 5 Effects of Schooling

4.2.1. Employment

4.2.1.1. College diploma = More job opportunities = encourages students to finish college.

4.2.1.2. On the down side, research has shown that job performance is not well related to education.

4.2.1.3. Higher college accreditations = More incomes within jobs.

4.2.2. Knowledge and Attitudes

4.2.2.1. Many times found that students in higher social classes have more academic opportunities and better academic achievement.

4.2.2.2. Different types of school academic programs and policies provide different levels of knowledge.the amount of time spent in academics and the amount of discipline are directly related to student knowledge and attitudes.

4.2.2.3. More years of schooling = More knowledge

4.2.3. Teacher Behavior

4.2.3.1. Teachers are accountable for a lot, which can cause stress. This can cause teachers to have inappropriate behaviors.

4.2.3.2. Teachers are role models and supporters.

4.2.3.3. Teachers' expectations play a major role in academic achievement because students want to make teachers happy.

4.2.3.4. Teachers with higher expectations and who encourage student actions create students' with more knowledge and higher self esteem.

4.2.4. Inadequate Schools

4.2.4.1. Different economical types of school influence knowledge.

4.2.4.2. Suburban and private schools provides better education.

4.2.5. Gender

4.2.5.1. Men are often paid mor.

4.2.5.2. Women do not have all of the same options as a male.

4.2.5.3. Most of the time girls start schooling ahead of boys, but by the end of education boys surpass the girls.

4.2.5.4. Women usually get the teacher role. Males usually assume the minister role.

4.2.5.5. Gender discrimination = enequalities

5. Chapter 6: School as an Organization

5.1. Fort Payne City Schools' district stakeholders

5.1.1. Dekalb County State Senator: Steve Livingston, Clay Scofield, and Phillip W. Williams,

5.1.2. Dekalb County House of Representatives: Tommy Hanes, Nathaniel Ledbetter, Kerry Rich, Will Ainsworth, Becky Nordgren, and Richard J. Lindsey,

5.1.3. Alabama State Superintendent: Michael Sentence

5.1.4. Representative on State School Board: Mary Scott Hunter is the representative for district 08 (includes Dekalb County).

5.1.5. Local Superintendent: Jim Cunningham

5.1.6. Local School Board

5.1.6.1. President: James B. Durham

5.1.6.2. Vice-President- Randy McClung

5.1.6.3. Team members: Carolyn Martin, Neal Baine, Kathy Prater

5.2. Elements of Change

5.2.1. School processes- The cultural qualities of schools

5.2.2. Culture of the school is the product of political compromises.

5.2.3. 4 elements of change

5.2.3.1. Conflict

5.2.3.1.1. When trying to change school culture hidden/unknown problems, issues, and disagreements will become apparent. Therefore, staff must be prepared to solve newly rising conflicts.

5.2.3.2. New Behaviors

5.2.3.2.1. Newly formed trust, attitudes, relationships toward each other and learning new techniques of collaboration, communication, and conflict resolution have to be had to elicit change.

5.2.3.3. Team Building

5.2.3.3.1. Everyone must be involved in decision making and work or negative attitudes toward change will persist.

5.2.3.4. Interrelated process and content

5.2.3.4.1. Know that the process of change is just as important as what you are trying to change. Trust is important within teams and between teams and schools. Lastly, being able to see the usefulness of the change will encourage more and more involvement.

5.2.4. To make a school more student-centered it requires time, effort, intelligence, and good will.

6. Chapter 7: Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

6.1. Curriculum Theory

6.1.1. Curriculum was revamped by child-centered and social-reconstructinist stands in the first half of the 20th century.

6.1.2. In 1970 curriculum theorists started claiming that school curriculum only represented the dominant groups in society. William Pinar had a big part in this. Pinar's curriculum theory was known as reconceptualized curriculum theory where theory and practice were separated at first but eventually found its way back together.

6.1.3. Wraga, on the other hand, criticized reconceptualized curriculum and called for the us of the Deweyan vision. Deweyan vision = educational theory should be tested in real-life schools.

6.1.4. Wraga's and Pinar's debates and visions were the subject of educational debates in the 1990s. However, as we move into the new millennium Dewey's pragmatic views are becoming more dominate.

6.1.4.1. Dewey's pragmatic views = a balance of theory, research, and practice.

6.1.5. Types of Pedagogic Practices

6.1.5.1. Mimetic tradition

6.1.5.1.1. Didactic method

6.1.5.2. Transformative tradition

6.1.5.2.1. I believe in this type of practice. It involves more than just presenting the curriculum. It involves teaching guiding students intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally. Transformative practice also consists of student-centered practices. Education is put in the students hands and the teachers guide and question the students. It is less authoritarian.

6.1.6. Critical theorists

6.1.6.1. I am a supporter of critical theorists.

6.1.6.2. critical pedagogy = curriculum and pedagogy should lead to individual growth which will lead to social change.

6.1.7. My pedagogic and curriculum beliefs prove that I am an advocate for social meliorist tradition.

6.1.8. Stratification of Curriculum

6.1.8.1. I have mixed feelings about tracking and ability grouping. If tracking and ability grouping were not implemented teachers may not be able to reach the different level needs of all of the students in the one classroom. However, if tracking and ability grouping did take place lower level students may never be able to catch up with the other students because they may not be challenged.

6.2. Two Dominant Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. Mimetic Tradition

6.2.1.1. Only considers the transfer of knowledge to students.

6.2.1.2. Includes the didactic method, which is the use of lectures and presentation as the form of communication in the classroom.

6.2.1.3. Authoritarian style of teaching

6.2.1.4. Emphasis on measurable goals and objectives.

6.2.2. Transformative Tradition

6.2.2.1. Considers the intellectual, creative, spiritual, and emotion state and achievement of the student.

6.2.2.2. Less authoritarian style. Believes in questioning the child and involving the child in questioning and conversation.

6.2.3. Both traditions can be used in the classroom to reach different styles of learning.

7. Chapter 8: Equality of Opportunity and Educational Outcome

7.1. Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Race

7.1.1.1. from 16-24 year olds 5.2% of white students, 9.3% of African Americans, and 17.6% of hispanics drop out of school.

7.1.1.2. Minorities have lower SAT scores than whites due to reading proficiency.

7.1.1.3. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as whites; therefore, minorities have less educational rewards.

7.1.2. Class

7.1.2.1. Different social classes = different educational experiences

7.1.2.2. The longer the education the longer financial support is needed by the student. Wealthier families can easily stay in education longer.

7.1.2.3. Upper-class families have higher expectations for higher education than middle and lower-class families. Therefore, more upper-class students will receive a higher education.

7.1.2.4. Teachers see students of each class differently, which effect students' attitudes toward education.

7.1.3. Gender

7.1.3.1. Females in today's world are less likely to drop out and are more likely to have a higher level of reading and writing proficiency than males.

7.1.3.2. It is historically and presently assumed that males do better in mathematics than females. Teachers show that in their attitudes and teaching styles.

7.1.3.3. It is proven that men are likely to score higher on the SAT, but there are more women attending post-secondary institutions.

7.1.3.4. There is even more information on this topic in the chapter 9 box.

7.2. Two Responses from the Coleman Study in 1982

7.2.1. 1. Many researchers like Jencks (1985) and Alexander and Pallas (1983) claim that coleman's findings were "negligible" (p368) or insignificant. Coleman's studies were compared to catholic school systems. Lastly, many researchers suggested that private school serve the poor students better than public schools do. There is still debate today.

7.2.2. 2. Geoffrey Borman and Maritza Dowling conducted a study similar to Coleman's study and confirmed some of his studies of 1966 and 1982. Borman and Dowling found that race and socioeconomic status is the biggest factor effecting education, and school reform must focus on segregation and eliminating tracking and white middle-class biases.

8. Chapter 9: Explanations of Educational Inequality

8.1. Two types of Cultural Deprivation Theory

8.1.1. Lack of cultural resources

8.1.1.1. Popular in the 1960s

8.1.1.2. Suggests that unequal education is caused by the lack of books and other educational stimuli at the students home that matches the culture of the school. Intellectual and social skills can suffer from not having the culturally appropriate resources before entering the school system.

8.1.2. Lack of same value system

8.1.2.1. An addition to the lack of cultural resource theory.

8.1.2.2. Oscar Lewis (1966) said that the poor have a whole different set of values than the middle-class culture; therefore, they are at a disadvantage in a school of the middle-class culture.

8.1.2.3. Middle class culture values hard work, initiative, delay of gratification, and schooling. The culture of poverty is the complete opposite. Students in poverty are at a disadvantage because they are likely not raised with the expected values of the school.

8.2. 4 School-Centered explanations for educational inequality

8.2.1. School Financing

8.2.1.1. Public schools are financed by local, state, and federal sources. The majority is financed by local property taxes. Therefore, communities with more affluent property can raise more money for the school.

8.2.1.2. More affluent communities are able to spend more educational money per pupil than other communities.

8.2.1.3. Many researchers suggest federal aid to level out the playing field.

8.2.1.4. In New Jersey, Abbot V's mandates (explained in the chapter 10 box under school finance reform) showed improvement in the poorer schooling systems.

8.2.2. Between-School Differences: Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices

8.2.2.1. The working-class culture predominately have teacher-directed pedagogic practices and vocational or social efficiency curriculum.

8.2.2.2. The middle-class culture schools predominately has student-centered pedagogic practices and humanistic liberal arts college preparatory curriculum.

8.2.2.3. The upper-class culture predominately has authoritarian pedagogic practices and classical-humanistic college preparatory curriculum.

8.2.2.4. Bernstein's (1990) , Anyon's (1908), Rist's (1970, 1973), Fine's (1991), Macleod's (1995), Cookson and Persell's (1985), Powell, Farrar, and Cohen's (1985), Lightfoot's (1983), Freedman's (1990), Kidder's (1989), and Sachar's (1991) research supports the findings above, which suggest that the differences in class culture oaf schools are a small part in the overall inequality explanation.

8.2.3. Within-School Differences: Curriculum and Ability Grouping

8.2.3.1. At the elementary level students are grouped together based on reading ability, teacher recommendations, standardized test scores, and sometimes race, class, or gender.

8.2.3.2. Elementary students may be taught at different rates or teachers may have different expectations for different children.

8.2.3.3. At the secondary level students are divided by ability and curriculum.

8.2.3.4. Secondary students can receive very different educations than each other while being in the same school.

8.2.3.5. Many researchers have found positives and negatives in grouping. Some researchers say the homogenous grouping will result in inequality of educational opportunity, and other say that heterogenous grouping will only result in teaching to the middle-class not the individual students.

8.2.3.6. The way students are grouped can effect the way a teacher is able to teach, which results in possible inequalities within the classroom.

8.2.4. Gender and Schooling

8.2.4.1. People of different genders may see the world and schooling differently.

8.2.4.2. The essay called "The Next Great Moment in History is Theirs," by Vivian Gornick heavily influenced the femist movement and challenged unequal treatment of women.

8.2.4.3. Schooling attitudes toward culture is/can be based on concepts and judgements made before the nineteenth century. For example, women are more caring and connected and men are more competitive and intelligent.

8.2.4.4. Many researches feel that caring is embedded in the female psychology and schools devalue caring but promote competition, which is favored by male behavior. However, some researchers and feminists say that those assumptions are too conservative and traditional.

8.2.4.5. Many researchers say that curriculum portrays men and women roles as stereotypical and traditional. Furthermore, much research says that boys dominate the classroom and get more attention. Also it is found that teachers will help the male with work but just finish it for the female.

8.2.4.6. Some researchers suggest that curriculum and pedagogic practices be changed to eliminate the idea of stereotypical roles of males and females, and other researchers suggest single-sex schooling.

9. Chapter 10: Educational Reform and School Improvement

9.1. Two School-Based Reforms

9.1.1. School Choice

9.1.1.1. 1980s-1990s: researchers and analysts found many public schools were not meeting expectations of student achievement, discipline, and morality. They also found that private schools were outdoing public schools, and that school of choice was effective.

9.1.1.2. Coleman, Hoffer, and Kilgore (1982) provided research and work that proved private schools were outdoing public schools in academics.

9.1.1.3. Voucher proposals pushed school choice in the educational world. They claimed families should be funded and not schools.

9.1.1.4. Late 1980s: Reagan and Bush voiced that they both supported school of choice.

9.1.1.5. Politics, Markets, and America's Schools by John E. Chubb and Terry M. Moe gave evidence that school choice would cause structural reform because if schools have to compete with each other they will be forced to improve.

9.1.1.6. In 1990 a bill was passed that supported school of choice.

9.1.1.7. Choice plans were then implemented

9.1.1.7.1. Intersectional choice plans: Include public and private schools but was of much debate because of constitutionality reasons and equity reason. Religion and educational inequality in private schools was of much concern and caused many debates regarding funding for these schools

9.1.1.7.2. Intersectional school choice policies: Public schools are only included. This calls for students to be able to go to any public school regardless of residency if the school has room and doesn't disturb racial balance.

9.1.1.7.3. Intradistrict choice plans: Gives students the ability to make decisions about their school district and curriculum.

9.1.1.8. "Powers and Cookson (1999) summarized the available evidence and concluded that (1) market-driven choice programs increased stratification within school districts; (2)choice programs increase the educational opportunities for minority students, who, without these programs, would be limited to their neighborhood public schools; (3) choice parents tend to be more involved in their children's education; (4) choice parents tend to be more satisfied with their children's education; and (5) there is a disagreement among researchers about the effect of choice on student achievement (p522)."

9.1.2. Charter Schools

9.1.2.1. The first state-legeslated charter law was passed in Minnesota in 1991, and 41 states followed (including district of columbia and Puerto Rico). The law passed in Minnesota caused a movement where 3,700 charter schools were opened.

9.1.2.2. Most charter schools have a waiting list, which is causing states to want to authorize more of them.

9.1.2.3. Charter schools are unaccountable for many regulations given to public schools. Charter schools are held accountable by a legal contract with the people who run the school and who monitor the school that explains the school's mission, program, goals, students served, assessments, and success.

9.1.2.4. Charter schools have control over everything associated with the school and schooling system.

9.1.2.5. Charter schools are paid for by tax dollar and can be started by anyone, but they have to prove success to their public agencies (board of education or colleges).

9.1.2.6. Many believe charter schools are bet for low-income students.

9.1.2.7. In opposition: Public schools proved to outperform charter schools by the American Federation of Teachers in 2004, but the research was condemned immediately for faulty research. However, in 2006 the National Center for Educational Statistics proved that public school excelled above charter schools in math and reading. **None of these statistics significantly effected charter schools**

9.1.2.8. Hoxby (2004) then released studies that were compared nationally and proved that students in charter schools did better than students in the neighboring district schools.

9.1.2.9. Many educational researchers argue that there isn't enough data to tell whether or not charter schools are effective and other researchers are still actively debating the effectiveness of charter schools. More research and data needs to be collected to officially call the effectiveness of charter schools.

9.2. Economic and Community Reforms

9.2.1. School Finance Reforms

9.2.1.1. Rodriguez V. San Antonio supreme court case in 1973 was focused on inequality of funding and resulted in an enactment of an income tax to pay for the educational program; however, it wasn't enough. This case also resulted in a clause called the "thorough and efficient" clause in the New Jersey Sate Constitution that had to do with low finances causing children to not be able to receive a through and efficient education.

9.2.1.2. In 1990 the court ruled for poorer school districts to receive more funding to eliminate discrimination and to provide needed, additional programs.

9.2.1.3. The court required New Jersey to implement a package of supplemental programs in 1998, and Abbott V implemented school reforms, full kindergarten day, preschool for 3 and 4 year olds, and a funded correctional school.

9.2.1.4. The Abbott v. Burke court case in 1980 first made the supreme court realize the need for school funding and addressing factors outside of school.

9.2.1.5. The New Jersey Supreme Court ruled, in 2009, for a funding formula called SFRA that implemented the "money follows the child" approach that gives money to schools based on student needs. The effect of the "money follows the child" approach is still being research and investigated today.

9.2.1.6. In 1993, parents and advocates started a group called Campaign for Fiscal Equity (CFE) that challenged the state to give an education that prepares students for society. Is still working today to make sure that schools with high needs receive the appropriate funding.

9.2.2. Full Service and Community Schools

9.2.2.1. Dryfoos's model of full service schools

9.2.2.1.1. Tries to meet student and familyeducational, physical, psychological, and social needs by collaborating between schools and community services.

9.2.2.1.2. Schools and community services are open extended hours to accommodate a range of people and needs in the community.

9.2.2.1.3. Aim to prevent and support student and family problems; however, there is no research proving the effectiveness of this approach.

9.2.2.2. Two other community-based reforms are Canada's Harlem Children's Zone and Newark's Broader Bolder Approach.