Chapter 3: Text

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Chapter 3: Text by Mind Map: Chapter 3: Text

1. Fonts and Typefaces:

1.1. 1. A typeface is a family of graphics characters, often with many type sizes and style.

1.2. 2. A font is a collection of characters of a single size and style belonging to a particular typeface family.

1.3. 3. Fonts and Typeface

1.3.1. A. Font styles

1.3.1.1. 1.Boldface

1.3.1.2. 2. Italic

1.3.1.3. 3. Underlining

1.3.1.4. 4.Outlining

1.3.2. B. Font Terminology

1.3.2.1. 1. Baseline- The line on which the bases of characters are arranged.

1.3.2.2. 2. Cap Height- Cap height refers to the height of a capital letters.

1.3.2.3. 3. X-Height- The distance between the baseline and the top of a lower-case letter x.

1.3.2.4. 4. Ascenders/Descenders- Strokes that rise above the x-height/drop below the baseline.

1.3.2.5. 5. Kerning- Adjustment of space between certain pairs of letters(e.g AV) to make them more uniform.

1.3.2.6. 6. Tracking- Adjustment of space for group of letters.

1.3.3. C. Cases

1.3.3.1. A capitalized letter is referred to as uppercase, while a small letter is referred to as lowercase.

1.3.3.2. Placing an uppercase letter in the middle of a word is referred to as an intercap or CamelCase.

1.3.4. Serif Versus Sans Serif

1.3.4.1. A serif is the little decoration at the end of a letter stroke.

1.3.4.2. Sans Serif fonts do not have decoration at the end of a letter stroke.

2. Text Elements Used In Multimedia:

2.1. Menus for navigation

2.1.1. A user navigates through content using a menu; A simple menu consists of a text list of topics.

2.2. Interactive buttons

2.2.1. A button is a clickable object that executes a command when activated; Users can create their own buttons from bitmaps and graphics.

2.3. HTML documents

2.3.1. HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. Is the standard markup language used to create web pages. HTML documents are marked using tags. An advanced form of HTML is DHTML. DHTML stands for Dynamics Hypertext Markup Language. A collection of technologies used together to create interactive and animated web sites. DHTML uses; Static HTML, Client side and Cascading Style Sheets(CSS).

2.4. Fields for reading

2.4.1. Reading a hard copy is easier and faster than reading from the computer screen. A document can be printed in one of two orientations: Portraits or landscape. The taller-than-wide orientation used for printing document is called portrait. The wider-than-tall orientation that is normal to monitors is called landscape.

2.5. Symbols and icons

2.5.1. Symbols are concentrated text in the form of stand-alone graphic constructs. They are used to convey meaningful messages. Symbols used to convey human emotions are called emoticons. Icons are symbolic representations of object and processes.

2.6. Choosing text fonts

2.6.1. 1. Consider legibility and readability.

2.6.2. 2. Avoid to many faces.

2.6.3. 3. Use color purposefully.

2.6.4. 4. Use anti-aliased text.

2.6.5. 5. Use drop caps and initial caps for accent.

2.6.6. 6. Minimize centered text.

2.6.7. 7. Use white space.

2.6.8. 8. Use animated text to grab attention.

3. Computer and text:

3.1. Bitmap Font

3.1.1. Bitmaps fonts consists of a matrix of dots or pixels representing the image.

3.1.1.1. 1. File size increases as more sizes are added.

3.1.1.2. 2. Require a lot of memory.

3.1.1.3. 3. Non-scalable.

3.2. Vector Font

3.2.1. Can draw any size by scaling the vector drawing primitives mathematically:

3.2.1.1. 1. File size is much smaller than Bitmaps.

3.2.1.2. TrueType, OpenType and PostScript are vector font formats.

3.2.2. Vector fonts drawing use instruction and mathematical formulae to describe each glyph.

3.3. Rasterization

3.3.1. Font rasterization is the process of converting text from a vector description to a raster or bitmap description.

3.3.2. Jaggies are the jagged edges you see when a bitmapped image is resized.

3.4. Anti-aliasing

3.4.1. Antialiasing blend the font into the background color. It refers to the smoothing of jagged edges of drawn graphics and text to improve their appearance or readability.

3.5. Character sets

3.5.1. Unique 7-bit (Binary code word)

3.6. Unicode

3.6.1. 16 bits architecture for multilingual text and character. Covers 96,382 characters. Unicode can support a wide variety of non-Roman alphabets including Han Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Korean Bengali and so on.

4. Font Mapping:

4.1. Specifying which font to be substituition is called font mapping.

5. Fontograper

5.1. Is a specialized graphics editor. It is compatible with both Macintosh and Windows platforms. It can be used to develop PostScript, TrueType and OpenType fonts. It can also modify existing typefaces and incorporate PostScript artwork.

6. Hypertext versus HyperMedia

6.1. Hypertext

6.1.1. Hypertext is a text which contains links to other texts Hypertext is a subset of hypermedia. A

6.1.2. Hypertext system enables the user to navigate through text in a nonlinear way. Hypertext system are used for:

6.1.2.1. 1. Electronic publishing and reference works.

6.1.2.2. 2. Technical documentation.

6.1.2.3. 3. Educational courseware.

6.1.2.4. 4. Interactive kiosks.

6.1.2.5. 5. Electronic catalogs.

6.2. Hypermedia

6.2.1. Hypermedia is constrained to be text-based. It can include other media. For example; Graphics, images and continuous media like sound and video.

6.2.2. Hypermedia structure:

6.2.2.1. Links- Links are connections between conceptual elements and navigation pathways and menus.

6.2.2.2. Nodes- Nodes are accessible topics, documents, messages and content elements. Nodes and links form the backbone of a knowledge access system.

6.2.2.3. Anchors- An anchors is defined as the reference from document to another document, image, sound, or file on the Web.