Drug overdoses becoming prominent issue in Toronto, top health officials recommend 'safe-injectio...

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Drug overdoses becoming prominent issue in Toronto, top health officials recommend 'safe-injection sites' to reduce overdose deaths (CBC) by Mind Map: Drug overdoses becoming prominent issue in Toronto, top health officials recommend 'safe-injection sites' to reduce overdose deaths (CBC)

1. Overdoses as growing issue in Toronto

1.1. Overdose deaths in Toronto jump 41% in nine years (Toronto Star)

1.2. Six Toronto residents overdose in one week in February 2016 (MetroNews)

1.3. Official City of Toronto report on overdose statistics for 2015

1.4. Over 10,000 drug users in Toronto as of November 2015 (Toronto Star)

2. Arguments for safe-injection sites in Toronto

2.1. New study finds safe-injection sites less expensive than expected, less expensive than cumulative hospital bills for overdoses (Toronto Star)

2.1.1. Toronto study finds Hepatitus C treatments $60,000 per person, states safe-injection sites "make financial sense for Ontario" (CBC)

2.2. Toronto medical officer states safe-injection sites will "save lives, reduce drug overdoses and limit the spread of blood-borne diseases" (National Post)

2.3. Toronto Board of Health recommends safe-injection sites, claims they will reduce deaths and crime rates (MacLean's)

2.4. Harper government attempts to shut down existing safe-injection sites in Vancouver in 2013, Supreme Court denies the charges, states closing clinic would threaten drug users' lives, hence unconstitutional (National Post)

2.4.1. Drug Prevention Network of Canada accuses Supreme Court of using false data, claims overdoses increased in Vancouver safe-injection sites between 2002-2007 (National Post)

3. Arguments against safe-injection sites in Toronto

3.1. Critics, including Toronto politicians and doctors, claim safe-injection sites unlawful, unsafe, unethical, encourages drug use (CTV News)

3.2. President of the Vancouver Police Union claims safe-injection sites have created "public safety implication" in Vancouver (Canada English)

3.3. Head of Toronto police union says communities with safe-injection sites will need more cops (Toronto Sun)

3.4. Some argue taxpayer money better spent on reducing addiction, claim Insite locations in Vancouver encourage drug use (Huffington Post)

3.5. Legal ambiguity and abuse of fundamental government responsibility

3.5.1. Affront to federal control, government facilitating drug use amoral (The Globe and Mail)

4. Success of Insite, the two Vancouver-based safe-injection sites (only sites in Canada)

4.1. From 2003 to 2015, B.C. goes from having highest rates of infection in Canada to lowest, 35 percent decline in overdose deaths in twelve years in area surrounding Insite locations, regular Insite users found to be 30 per cent more likely to enter addiction treatment (MacLean's)

4.2. Over 30 studies conducted by 2006 find Vancouver Insite locations have reduced drug use, raised rehabilitation enrollment, reduced overdoses and injection-related illness, with little adverse effects on community, overwhelming academic support for Insite (National Center for Biotechnology Information)

4.2.1. Study finds incremental net savings caused by health effect of Vancouver Insite over ten years at $20 million, places number of life-years gained to 1070 (National Center for Biotechnology Information)

5. Toronto implementation plan

5.1. Liberal government decides to use same model as Vancouver in development of safe-injection sites on March 14, 2016 (Global News)

5.2. City of Toronto official implementation plan: 'Supervised Injection Services for Toronto: Next Steps' (City of Toronto)

6. Opposing philosophical views about addressing drug use

6.1. Harm Reduction Principle

6.1.1. Social justice movement based on belief in, and respect for, the rights of drug users, focus on minimizing harmful effects instead of condemning and attempting to eliminate use of drugs entirely (Harm Reduction Coalition) Liberal government inclined to harm reduction principle, particularly Trudeau's Liberal government (Latest Canada)

6.2. War on Drugs

6.2.1. Drug use should be condemned and eliminated entirely, drug users blamed and criminalized, drugs can be cycled out of Canadian society with proper government intervention Harper government committed to this fight, myriad of anti-drug laws implemented during Conservative government rule (MacLean's)