My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative Perspective

1.1.1. William Graham Sumner

1.1.1.1. looks at social evolution as a process that enables the strongest individuals and groups to survive, and looks at human and social evolution as adaptation to changes in the environment.

1.1.1.2. Individuals and groups must compete in the social environment in order to survive and human progress is dependent on individual initiative and drive

1.1.2. Adam Smith and Milton Friedman

1.1.2.1. argues that free market capitalism allows for the maximization of economic growth and individual liberty with competition ensuring that potential abuses can be minimized

1.1.2.2. individuals are rational actors who make decisions on a cost-benefit scale

1.1.3. Ronald Reagan Presidency

1.1.3.1. Reagan used a free market philosophy and argued that welfare state policies were at the heart of an American malasie

1.1.3.2. His philosophy stressed individual initiative and portrayed the individual as the only one capable of solving his or her own problems.

1.1.3.2.1. conservatives credited Reagan with restoring U.S, economic growth

1.2. Traditional

1.2.1. view the schools as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of U.S. society

1.2.1.1. Examples. family unity, individual initiative, hard work

1.2.2. believe schools should pass on the best of what was and what is

1.2.3. traditional visions encompass the right liberal to the conservative spectrums

2. History of U.S Education

2.1. My Most Influential Educational Era: Equity Era (1945-1980

2.1.1. 1954 - Brown vs. BOE

2.1.1.1. Repealed 1896 Plessy vs Ferguson

2.1.1.2. The Court's ruling desegregated schooling.

2.1.2. 1972- Title XI

2.1.2.1. Prohibits the discrimination of gender

2.1.3. 1975-Disabled students are admitted to public education

2.2. Historical Moments

2.2.1. 1821- First public high school.

2.2.2. 1855- First kindergarten class is available in the U.S.

2.2.3. 1896- Plessy vs. Ferguson

2.2.4. 2002- No Child Left Behind

2.2.4.1. standardized testing

2.2.4.2. state wide assessments

2.2.5. 2015- Every Students Succeeds Act

2.2.5.1. College and Career Ready Standards

2.3. Conservative Interpretation

2.3.1. The Conservative Perspective critics pointed out failure to fulfill social goals.

2.3.2. Is accused of ignoring the effects of poverty on students achievement.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical perspectives

3.1.1. schools and society

3.1.1.1. shapes children's perceptions of the world by processes of socialization

3.1.1.2. promote gender definitions and stereotypes when they segregate learning and extracurricular activities by gender

3.1.1.2.1. socially and culturally reproduce the existing society through the systematic socialization of its youngest members.

3.1.1.3. influences long-term social, economic, and cultural destinies of children

3.2. effects of schooling that have the greatest impact on students

3.2.1. peer influences

3.2.2. classroom behavioral techniques

3.2.3. teacher credibility

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Goals of Education

4.1.1. John Dewey

4.1.1.1. Stressed the importance of school as a place where ideas can be implemented, challenged, restructured/

4.1.1.2. Balanced the needs of society and community on one hand and the needs of the individual on the other.

4.1.1.3. growth in education (live life to the fullest and build a good society).

4.2. Roles of Teacher

4.2.1. Progressivism focused on not being the authority figure but the facilitator.

4.2.2. Teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan course of study.

4.3. Method of Instruction

4.3.1. learn by both individually and in groups.

4.3.2. Have students ask questions of what they want to know.

4.3.3. problem solving questions

4.4. Curriculum

4.4.1. integrated curriculum

4.4.2. start with contemporary problems and working from the known to the unknown.

4.4.3. expanding environments

4.4.4. not wedded to a fixed curriculum rather curriculum changes as the social order changes

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. President- Obama

5.1.1. U.S. Senators: Richard Shelby, Jeff Sessions

5.1.1.1. U.S. Representatives: Mo Brooks

5.2. Governor- Robert Bently

5.2.1. State Senator: Bill Holtzclaw

5.2.1.1. State Representative: Phil Williams

5.3. State Super Intendant: Tommy Bice

5.3.1. State Board Representative: Mary Scott Hunter

5.4. Local Superintendent: Thomas Sisk(Limestone County)

5.4.1. Trey Holladay( Athens City Schools)

5.5. Local School Boards: Athens City and Limestone County

5.5.1. Limestone County

5.5.1.1. Chair- Earl Glaze, Marty Adams, Anthony Hilliard, Bret McGill, Charles Shoulders, Edward Winter

5.5.2. Athens City

5.5.2.1. President- Russell Johnson, Vice President- Beverly Malone, Chris Paysinger, Jennifer Manville, James Lucas, Scott Henry, Tim Green

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Historical Curriculum Theory

6.1.1. Humanist Curriculum

6.1.1.1. knowledge of the traditional liberal arts is the cornerstone of an educated citizenry and that the purpose of education is to present to students the best of what has been thought and written

6.2. Sociological Curriculum Theory

6.2.1. Functionalist

6.2.1.1. school curriculum concentrates on the function of what is taught in schools an its relationships to the role of schools within society.

6.2.1.2. give students the knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. People are discriminated based on their families class, race and gender

7.2. Students have different educational experiences based on their social class and achievements.

7.3. it is difficult to relate class to race but there are many factors that play a role.

7.4. Gender differences with education has decreased in the past 20 years , but mean still have some slight advantages over females.

7.5. Students origins have a significant impact on their destination whether it is thought about or not.

7.6. high social class is related to higher achievements. Students in the lower class have disadvantages so profound that there is little hope of altering their lives.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. There are two different views of unequal educational achievement, student centered and school centered

8.2. Students centered showed research that stated their are more differences in academics among students in the same school that with students from different schools.

8.3. Factors include genetic differences, cultural deprivation, cultural differences.

8.4. School centered research was based on both between schools and in schools.

8.5. Higher class communities are able to spend for their students than that of the poorer communities.

8.6. Some factors of school centered reviews are school financing, research, curriculum and grouping with schools and genders.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. In the early 1990s, the federal government set 6 goals for improvements on education

9.1.1. 1. all students start school ready to learn. 2. high school graduation rate would increase to 90%. 3. students will leave grades 4,8, and 12 after demonstrating competency in challenging subject matter. 4. students will first in the world in math and science achievement. 5. every adult will be literate and possess skills necessary to compete in the economy and exercise rights and responsibilities of being a citizen. 6. every school in America will be drug and violence free.

9.1.2. 4 themes were put into place. 1. creating better and accountable schools. 2. creating a new generation for tomorrows students. 3. transforming America into a nation of students. 4. making our communities where learning is possible.

9.1.3. School based reforms were based on school choice, charter schools, and tuition vouchers.

9.1.4. Federal government placed two reforms in the 2000s, No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top

9.1.5. I think trying to connect the school and community to social reforms helped gain leadership, parent community ties and instructional guidance.