disability categories

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disability categories by Mind Map: disability categories

1. 1. Autism

1.1. 1. Autism means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engaging in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences.

1.1.1. Assistive technology for Austin disability: According to Susan Stokes, Autism Consultant, children with autism, process visual information easier than auditory information. Any time we use assistive technology devices with these children, we're giving them information through their strongest processing area (visual). Therefore various types of technology from "low" tech to "high" tech, should be incorporated into every aspect of daily living in order to improve the functional capabilities of children with autism. http://www.projectidealonline.org/v/deaf-blindness/

2. 2. Deaf-blindness

2.1. 2. Deaf-blindness…means concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness. http://www.teachingvisuallyimpaired.com/

2.1.1. Assistive technology for Deaf-blindness disability: Educators who work with individuals who are deaf blind have a big challenge to communicate in a meaning full way. Individuals who are deaf blind will often need touch in order to focus their attention. They may have very slow response times; therefore, the teacher should allow time for the student to respond. Symbolic communication can be utilized by individuals who are deaf blind. The principal communication systems include: Object symbols, Sign language, Gestures, Picture symbols, Finger spelling, Signed English, Braille. Modern technology has provided opportunities for students who are deaf blind to access the general curriculum. Assistive technology devices that were created for individuals with visual impairments (especially those with Braille output) can be utilized by students who are deaf blind. These include: 1.Braille translation software that converts print into Braille and Braille into print. 2. Braille printer connects to a computer and print Braille on paper. 3. Refreshable Braille display converts text on computer to Braille by an output device connect to the computer https://www.gallaudet.edu/clerc-center/info-to-go/assistive-technology/assistive-technologies.html

2.2. Case Study Kentucky state Official disability site provide many disability cases and according to them the following are the necessary accommodation for Deaf-blindness. The deaf student in the class room needs the following Assistive technologies. Provide a note-taker or provide class notes. Make him to sit in the front row so that the student can see teacher face as much as possible. Teacher has to ask the student whether his speech is in the right pace, not too fast not too slow Teacher has to use the blackboard or overheads as much as possible. Provide good lighting in classrooms. Provide background noises very little(e.g., street sounds). In group discussions, use a semi-circle arrangement so the student will be able to see everyone’s face.

3. 3. Deafness

3.1. Deafness means a hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

3.1.1. Assistive technology for Deafness disability Various Assistive Listening Device (ALD) systems are used to hepl student with deafness. Case Study: The deaf student in the class room needs the following Assistive technologies. Provide a note-taker or provide class notes. Make him to sit in the front row so that the student can see teacher face as much as possible. Teacher has to ask the student whether his speech is in the right pace, not too fast not too slow Teacher has to use the blackboard or overheads as much as possible. Provide good lighting in classrooms. Provide background noises very little(e.g., street sounds). In group discussions, use a semi-circle arrangement so the student will be able to see everyone’s face.

4. 4. Developmental delay

4.1. Developmental Delay means for children from birth to age three (under IDEA Part C) and children from ages three through nine (under IDEA Part B), the term developmental delay, as defined by each State, means a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development.

4.1.1. Assistive technology for developmental delay disability: Students with developmental impairment need a variety of assistive technology to improve their daily routine life as well as in the school. For motor function they use canes, walkers, wheelchairs, adapted eating equipment etc. They uses computer and voice synthesizer for communication.

5. 5. Emotional Disturbance

5.1. Emotional Disturbance means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance. http://www.teachingvisuallyimpaired.com/

5.1.1. Assistive technology for Emotional Disturbance One of the assistive technology is point sheets and behavior charts. These charts help children meet goals they have by documenting their accomplishments throughout the day. Seeing the point sheets and charts in the classroom gives the children the motivation to pay attention to their behaviors throughout the day. Another one is the “Motivaider”. It is much like a classroom timer where it buzzes after a certain period of time to help children stay focused. The buzzer reminds them to stay focused. http://sbaxter4teach.blogspot.com/2014/02/assistive-technology-for-students-with_11.html Case Study: ADHD I know Stanley ever since he is with his grandmother, Mrs. Jean Hassler, who live in our neighborhood. Stanley is a thirteen year old boy, skinny tall boy who said he love his grandma. Mrs. Jean who talked a lot whenever I met her in our front yard or back yard and on one such talk she said her grandson one time slapped his school principal couple of years ago. I can’t believe such an incident and interested to know more about him. Stanley is now studying tenth grade student looks very responsible boy and looking forward his high school graduation. Things were not like this when he was in the middle school class. When he was in eighth grade, his reading and math skills were one to two years below grade level. He was failing every subject and seemed destined to repeat the eighth grade. His teacher said that he had difficulty paying attention during structured and unstructured activities. When Stanley was oppositional in the class, the class teacher sends him out of the class to see the school principal. In one such occasion he has an argument with principal and he slapped his face. I talked Stanley about it but he repeated the same incident with proud. I was shocked his response and began to watch him closely and asked Mrs. Jean about him whenever I meet her. His grandma said that Stanley was rebellious even at home. His father had abandoned him virtually from birth. His mother has two more girls from another husband. When Stanley was small his mother was frequently drunk and around him she was moody and volatile. He refused to obey his step father or mother going to bed late at night and failing to rise for school in the morning. Intermittently he wet the bed. His mother’s mother, Mrs. Jean, sensing that she needed help with Stanley, and having been advised of his problems at school, intervened. The school administrators contacted his grandma and suggested that he was likely suffering from an Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The school authorities recommended that he be taken to his pediatrician. The pediatrician prescribed certain drugs for him. But his grandma doubted the wisdom of placing Stanley on drugs. She thought it would only compound his problems. When she sought the advice of the family pediatrician and asked for an alternative to drug, the doctor were referred to A Center for Educational and Personal Development (CEPD) where they could find a non-pharmacologic treatment. Upon initial evaluation, the Center found that Stanley is so hyperactive that he could only sit still for a minute. The CEPD team decided that Stanley should be sent to an alternative school for children with learning disabilities. Since Mrs. Jean is considered the official guardian of the boy, she worked with school authorities and CEPD to sent him to the Special Education school. Mrs. Jean not sure about the treatments but she said they counseled even to his Mam and Stanley undergo certain Neuro-therapy. After 2 years of service in the Center for Educational and Personal Development (CEPD and the special education school Stanley is now back to regular school. He had a solid and positive relationship with his grandma. Though he lost one year in his regular school he was on the honor roll at his new school and his behavior at school was described as excellent.

6. 6. Hearing Impairment

6.1. hearing impairment means hearing loss not covered by the definition of deafness. This type of loss can change or fluctuate over time. Remember that being hard of hearing is not the same thing as having auditory processing disorder.

6.1.1. Assistive technology for Hearing Impairment They use various hearing aids or cochlear implants for better listening and better communication.

7. 7. Intellectual Disability

7.1. Intellectual Disability means significantly below average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

7.1.1. Assistive technology for Intellectual Disability Students with Intellectual impairment need a variety of assistive technology to improve their daily routine. In schools they use audio books and computer assisted software for communication and learning

8. 8. Multiple Disabilities

8.1. Multiple Disabilities means concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness.

8.1.1. Assistive technology for Multiple disabilites According to (Hemmingsson, Lidstrom, & Nygard, 2009, p. 464), “In School, students with physical disabilities may benefit from using both low-tech devices, such as writing utilities, adapted desks, and special chairs, and high-tech devices, such as power mobility devices and information communication technology”. Communication devices and hearing aids may also use as assistive devices. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/

9. 9. Orthopedic Impairment

9.1. Orthopedic Impairment means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g.,cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).

9.1.1. Assistive technology for Orthopedic Impairment Student with orthopedic impairment can easily study in a regular school. They can do well in a regular school studying with other children. However, an orthotic disability requires Special Education Classroom. Children with orthopedic impairments face many challenges on a daily basis. Students with orthopedic impairment have unique educational needs that require teachers to have specialized knowledge and skill in order to appropriately meet these student’s needs. The specific impact of orthopedic impairment on each student depends on the type of impairment, its severity, and individual factors. Depend on the individual need teachers can provide: Longer response time, provide shorter assignments in order to accommodate there slower speed. Reduce demand for copying from the board; instead provide the students with notes and outlines. Provide frequent brake to prevent fatigue and improve concentration. Provide necessary assistance with personal needs such as feeding or toileting. Present material on the student’s most functional side. Provide extra space for easy movement and rounded or soft edge desks to avoid any injury. Consider height of the student’s wheel chair to access work spaces and other classroom equipment. http://www.projectidealonline.org/orthopedicImpairments.php

10. 10. Other Health Impairment

10.1. Other Health Impairment means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that— (a) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and (b) adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

11. 11. Specific Learning Disability

11.1. Specific Learning Disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; of intellectual disability; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.

11.1.1. Assistive technology for Learning Disability A wide range of assistive technology (AT) tools is used for reading and writing skills in school. These tools include audio and visual tools.

12. 12. Speech or Language Impairment

12.1. Speech or Language Impairment means a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

12.1.1. Assistive technology for Speech or Language Impairment For students with speech and language impairments, assistive technology can be helpful. There is an array of computer software packages available to develop their speech and language skills

13. 13. Traumatic Brain Injury

13.1. Traumatic Brain Injury means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech.

13.1.1. DAssistive technology for Traumatic Brain Injury Some of the most popular types of assistive technology for traumatic Brain Injury students include: Braille readers, computer-related equipment and programs, personalized keyboards, motorized wheelchairs, vision aides etc. estinations

14. 14. Visual Impairment

14.1. Visual Impairment Including Blindness means impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.