Learning Design and Technlogy

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Learning Design and Technlogy by Mind Map: Learning Design and Technlogy

1. Personal Reflection of Project

1.1. Gibbs Reflective Cycle

1.1.1. Description Very challenging but learnt so much through the experience This was a whole group effort to get the final result Success in achieving the learning objectives we set

1.1.2. Feelings As a group we all decided on the topic and felt we could all relate to it and contribute in different areas The course was so helpful as it helped us show the logic we had have to be able to plan a unit that would be beneficial to students in a real life situation The unit ended up taking so much more of my time than I originally planned I felt challenged through the planning, designing and implementation of this unit. But learnt so much through the process. So happy with our final product, but exhausted and very tired by the end due to the number of hours it took us to produce and complete, so many more than I initially though it would take

1.1.3. Evaluation The whole group worked really well as a team and all contributed to the project The hardest part personally was the editing of the written document at the end for myself, as it was such a big document. I had to cut it down and edited the writing so it flowed, correcting grammar and spelling So pleased with our final result. We did a trial on some ten year old students and they really enjoyed the experience. Well worth all the time and effort

1.1.4. Analysis There were no real issues from planning and developing this unit. There was a lot of planning and discussion and evaluation for each stage. All members shared and contributed equally and gave feedback and support where needed as the unit developed

1.1.5. Conclusion This unit challenged my technical skills in applying a unit of work through a Wix site, something I have never done before. Also the challenge to ensure that this unit could be applied in a real life situation with no gaps in the student learning

1.1.6. Action Plan Ideally next time I would love to have more time to spend on planning, designing, developing, implementing and evaluating. This is definitely something I will do again for my classes

2. Instructional Design Principles

2.1. Analysis

2.1.1. Causes of performance gaps Mager & Pipe’s Flowchart Can't do Won't do Causes of Performance Gaps Blanchard & Thacker Process Model A training model needs to interact with it's environment and be an "open system" as this keeps the whole system active and transforms the inputs to outputs

2.1.2. Lack of appropriate physique

2.1.3. Task Analysis Contextual analysis Prior knowledge Prerequisite knowledge Culture (some words are taboo in some cultures) Wordings (different meaning in different countries) Delivery analysis What methods will be used to deliver learning Content analysis A method for summarising content

2.1.4. Student Analysis Stages of Learning Adult learning Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Physiological needs Safety needs Love and belonging needs Esteem needs Self-actualization needs Other considerations include: - Children with special needs - Learning difficulties - Gifted and talented - EAL/ESL How do you conduct analysis? Talk to the students Suggest tools for students to use, in particular the younger students as they wont know what to use Ensure you have/know the students' baseline for learning Don't assume any learner is the same. All are different

2.2. Learning Theories

2.2.1. See Learning Theories for Different Instructional Design Models

2.3. Designing Instruction

2.3.1. Learning Objectives Mager’s ABCD model for learning objectives Audience Behavior Condition Degree Developing the learning objectives is one of the most important steps in planning materials It sets the direction of the course Sets the expectations for students Clarifies the intent of the instruction Supports the design and development of the teaching, learning and support materials for the unit of work Sets a framework for the evaluation of the final unit Provides evidence for student learning The learning objects should be specific and measurable

2.3.2. Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction

2.3.3. Merrill’s first principles of instruction Merrill’s first principles of instruction Designing effective, efficient, engaging instruction

2.3.4. 7 principles of good teaching Good Practice Encourages Student-Faculty Contact Good Practice Encourages Cooperation among Students Good Practice Encourages Active Learning Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback Good Practice Emphasizes Time on Task Good Practice Communicates High Expectations Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning

2.4. Development and implementation

2.4.1. Instructional Media

2.4.2. Developmental Issues

2.4.3. Implementation Issues

2.5. Evaluation

2.5.1. Formative Methods Review Mindmap Daily assessment Quiz Ongoing assessment Assess students understanding and skills learnt

2.5.2. Summative Methods for assessing Questionnaires Surveys Interviews Observations Testing Projects End of unit test Final assessment at end for students Teacher accountability and evaluation

2.5.3. Kirkpatrick Four levels evaluation model Kirkpatrick Reaction Learning Behavior Results

3. Application of instructional design principles

3.1. Reelections on To Infinity and Beyond

3.1.1. ADDIE MODEL Analysis Problem Instructional Strategies Rationale for Instructional Strategies Learning Theories Project Plan Design Task Analysis Student Analysis Learning Objectives Development Content Outline Selected Technology Delivery Method Instructional Materials Flowchart Implemetation Delivery Integration Evaluation Evaluation Plan Testing

4. Learning Theories for Different Instructional Design Models

4.1. Models available

4.1.1. ADDIE Instructional System Design (ISD) Analyse Design Development Implementation Evaluation

4.1.2. Merrill's First principal of instruction Problem-based learning, over four distinct phases of learning Activation of prior experience Demonstration of skills Application of skills Integration of skills

4.1.3. Dick and Carey Model Based on breaking instruction down into smaller components Identify Instructional goal Instructional analysis

4.1.4. Kemp's instructional design model A continuous cycle that requires constant planning, design, development and assessment for effective instruction Instructional problems Learner characteristics Task analysis Instructional objectives Content sequencing Instructional strategies Designing the message Instructional delivery Evaluation instruments

4.1.5. Gagné's Nine Events of Instruction Behaviorist and cognitive theorists 9 step process which links to the conditions of learning Learning Outcomes

4.1.6. Bloom's Learning Taxonomy Cognitive Learning Six levels: Simple recognition to increasingly more complex levels Revised Model

4.1.7. Cathy Moore's Action Mapping Helps change what people do, not just what they know. Quick Effective VIsual

4.1.8. David Wile Human Performance Technology (HPT) Combined five HP models to develop a new HPT model Helps to assess performance problems

4.1.9. Blanchard & Thacker Process Model Training as a process model with an open model system Input Process Output

4.1.10. Mager & Pipe’s Flowchart A tool for a fast and quick assessment of areas needing help; a person; organization, or operational analysis A tool to help with issues that need to be resolved

4.1.11. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs "A Theory of Human Motivation" Physiological needs Safety needs Love and belonging needs Esteem needs Self-actualization needs

4.1.12. Behaviorist Behaviorist Stimulus Response method All behavior is caused by external stimulus

4.1.13. Cognitivist Human cognition or intelligence The refining of knowledge by adding new information to knowledge already known The key concept of cognitivism involves how students think and gain knowledge

4.1.14. Constructionist Constructionist learning theory Student-centered, discovery learning. Students build on information they already have to gain more knowledge.

4.1.15. ASSURE ASSURE is an ISD model that aims to produce better teaching and learning Analyze Learners State Standards and Objectives Select Strategies, Technology, Media, and Materials Utilize Technology, Media, and Materials Require Learner Participation Evaluate and Revise

4.2. Kirkpatrick, 1998 Evaluation

4.2.1. Kirkpatrick's four level evaluation

4.2.2. Four level course evaluation Reaction What did the participants think and feel about the training Learning What is the increase in knowledge and/or skills, and attitudes Behavior Transfer of knowledge, skills, and/or attitudes Results The final results

5. What is Instructional Design?

5.1. What is it?

5.1.1. Systematic approach to the design of instruction

5.2. Background

5.2.1. Origins of Instructional design - WWII Robert Gagne; Leslie Briggs; John Flagnan B.F. Skinner ; WWII Pigeon guided missile

5.3. Where do we see it used ?

5.3.1. Army Publishers Universities Schools Banks

5.4. Examples

5.4.1. e-learning module computer based learning blended learning teaching with technology

5.5. Jobs

5.5.1. E-learning specialists

5.5.2. Learning Engineer

5.5.3. Instructional Technologist Evaluate new technologies Discover new ways of improving their instruction Conduct training sessions Research studies on the use for new technologies Develop training materials

6. Bibliography Gagne, R. M., Wager, W. W., Golas, K. C., Keller, J. M., & Russell, J. D. (2005). Principles of instructional design. Kirkpatrick, D.L., & Kirkpatrick, J.D. (2007). Implementing the Four Levels, Berrett-Koehler Publishers Mayer, R. (2001). Multimedia learning. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational technology research and development, 50(3), 43-59.