An Introduction to J.P.Sartre

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An Introduction to J.P.Sartre by Mind Map: An Introduction to J.P.Sartre

1. Life

1.1. Popularised existentialism in the post war years. Philosopher, political activist and novalist

1.2. Backed Marxism, atheist

1.3. Believed that philosophy and action were connected

2. Philosophical outlook

2.1. World is brute and contingent There is no overall rational plan that we could appeal to to give us solace and meaning

2.2. Mind-independent reality just is - it is superfluous an inert. It is the condition for consciousness. BEING-IN-ITSELF

2.3. Contrasted with consciousness, which is BEING-FOR-ITSELF Always trying to develop and find some equilibrium, but it fails miserably, which Sartre justifies in MP terms - human beings are fundamentally lacking Not an entity of any kind of thing - it is a gap, nothingness in which MIR is revealed.

2.4. Ever trying to reconcile this incommensurable aspect of our being - we are condemned to failure. Man is a 'useless passion'. It is through consciousness that meaning comes into the world.

2.5. All consciousness is directed towards something other than itself, works with fundamental distinction between in-itself and for-itself.

3. Sartre and other philosophers

3.1. Husserl: Intentionality is seen as a feature of mental life that guarantees contact with MIO. S wishes to establish a form of realism that allows we are presented in experience with MIO. In other words... Consciousness is a 'bursting out' towards the world - it is directed towards something to which it is not.

3.2. Heidegger: Human existence as both situated and free - with capacity to project itself. Relation between Dasein and being. Sartre thinks human's have no nature, they are pure freedom defined in terms of what they do.

3.3. Engaged in an a priori study of human beings and their world as they appear to consciousness.

4. Critique

4.1. (D.Moran) Sartre's contribution lies not in critical readings of Husserl, Heidegger, his development of phenomenological method, or metaphysics. Contribution is in his description of what it is to be human, bad faith, conception of freedom.

5. More on Sartre's philosophy

5.1. S is concerned with what is involved in being human and the kind of existence we enjoy rather than the kind of thing a conscious being is (brain, body, soul). Being-in-itself and being-for-itself are abstractions of a single reality - being-in-the-world. The relation in which we stand to other is called being-for-others. S is concerned with describing and analysing these 3 different but interdependent modes of being.