7 aspects of civilization

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7 aspects of civilization by Mind Map: 7 aspects of civilization

1. Arts and Education

1.1. Sumerians

1.1.1. Example of Sumerian art

1.1.2. Sumerian architecture used arches, ramps, and columns, all visible on ziggurats

1.1.3. Sumerian sculptures included statues with wide-open eyes and small objects carved out of ivory

1.1.4. Sumerian seals were small stone cylinders engraved all around with intricate designs - people often used these to show ownership

1.2. Shang/Zhou

1.2.1. Example of Shang/Zhou art

1.2.2. Artists created highly decorated vessels and objects out of bronze

1.2.3. Early Shang texts used picture symbols to represent objects or ideas

2. Social Structure and Family Life

2.1. Sumerians

2.1.1. There was a distinct social hierarchy

2.1.2. At the top of the hierarchy were kings, priests, and their principal agents

2.1.3. The second from the top on the hierarchy were large landowners and wealthy merchants.

2.1.4. Below landowners and merchants on the hierarchy were artisans, farmers and laborers, who were the majority of the Sumerians

2.1.5. At the bottom of the hierarchy were slaves

2.2. Shang/Zhou

2.2.1. Most of Shang China was an agricultural society - most people were farmers

2.2.2. From time to time, farmers were called upon to fight in the army or work alongside slaves on building projects

2.2.3. The majority of these civilizations were working class, but there were also a few ruling elite who had free time to spend in pursuit of leisure activities

3. Science and Technology

3.1. Sumerians

3.1.1. Invented the wheel and used it to make pottery and build a variety of vehicles

3.1.2. Invented the plow and learned to use bronze to make stronger tools and weapons

3.1.3. Collected and cataloged medical knowledge and performed basic surgery

3.1.4. Oldest known Sumerian medical book

3.2. Shang/Zhou

3.2.1. They knew of lunar and solar eclipses and had a 12 month calendar with each month containing 29 days.

3.2.2. The most significant technological invention was bronze casting

3.2.3. The Shang invented the chariot. The horses at the time were too small to ride, but they could still be attached to a chariot.

3.2.4. Silk, iron tools, acupuncture,and copper coins were some of the many significant inventions during the Zhou dynasty.

3.2.5. Example of a Shang/Zhou calendar

4. Religion

4.1. Sumerian

4.1.1. Practiced polytheism, or the worship of many gods

4.1.2. Believed that the gods controlled all natural forces

4.1.3. Worked hard to please the gods by doing things such as building ziggurats and temples where priests and priestesses offered the gods food and drink and held ceremonies

4.1.4. Priests held high status and initially governed the city/states

4.1.5. Example of a Sumerian temple

4.2. Shang/Zhou

4.2.1. Historians are able to gather information about Shang/Zhou by studying royal tombs

4.2.2. Most tombs contained valuable items made of bronze and jade. They also held remains of hundreds of sacrificed prisoners of war who were buried with the ruler.

4.2.3. Centered around the idea of ancestor worship

4.2.4. Often asked their ancestors for advice through the use of oracle bones.

4.2.5. Confucianism (the belief that people should treat one another humanely) and Daoism (the belief of being one with nature and the universe) were popular philosophies as well

4.2.6. Example of oracle bones

5. Government and Leaders

5.1. Sumerian

5.1.1. Sumerians practiced Polytheism, and believed that a god protected every city-state

5.1.2. Priests initially governed city-states

5.1.3. While city-states were fighting for dominance, war chiefs began to rule as kings

5.2. Shang/Zhou

5.2.1. China was ruled by a strong monarchy

5.2.2. The Shang kings were surrounded by a court, which is a gathering of wealthy nobles who preform rituals for the gods so that they will keep the kings safe.

5.2.3. Zhou ruled by the Mandate of Heaven, which stated that the gods would support a just ruler, but would not allow anyone corrupt to hold power

6. Geography and Agriculture

6.1. Sumerians

6.1.1. The region of Mesopotamia, where the Sumerian civilization developed, was flat, swampy, and well-suited for agriculture

6.1.2. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers often flooded in the spring, which left behind silt, which is a fertile mud that enriched the soil.

6.1.3. Farmers grew grains such as wheat and barley

6.1.4. One issue was that the region received little rain, so water levels in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers depended on rainfall and snowfall in distant mountains, which then led to rivers overflowing without warning and wiping out crops and villages, or, on the other hand, crops dying due to lack of water.

6.1.5. Map of the Sumerian civilization

6.2. Shang/Zhou

6.2.1. Two major rivers, the Chang Jiang (also known as the Yangzi), and the Huang He (also known as the Yellow River), provided water for civilization

6.2.2. Rich soil was deposited on the flood plains of the Chang Jiang and the Huang He, due to the rivers' annual floods

6.2.3. Southern China along the Chang Jiang was especially suited for growing rice, due to its warm climate and plentiful rainfall. Along the Huang He, the climate was more suited for growing grains such as wheat and millet, due to its cooler and drier climate

6.2.4. The Huang He picked up a type of fine, dusty soil called loess from desert winds that carried it into China

6.2.5. Map of the Shang/Zhou civilization

7. Economy and Trade

7.1. Sumerians

7.1.1. Obtained many of the materials for their buildings and art through trade

7.1.2. Traded with people across Southwest Asia and beyond

7.1.3. Exchanged woven textiles for metals, timber, and stone

7.1.4. One of their reasons for trade was a lack of raw materials, such as wood and metals

7.2. Shang/Zhou

7.2.1. Iron was extremely important in the Zhou economy

7.2.2. During the Zhou dynasty, the building of roads and canals improved transportation and trade routes throughout China