Comparative Study Exam

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Comparative Study Exam by Mind Map: Comparative Study Exam

1. Sir Henry Raeburn

1.1. Important scottish painter at the time (EZ)

1.1.1. Compare similar british (AB) Both artists from Great Britain (EZ) Both important artists of the time (EZ) Both influencial difference not Scottish, also has African origins (AB) One's an immigrant (EZ)

1.2. Worked as The Kings Limner (Painter) for Scotland in 1822 (ST)

1.2.1. Compare similar difference Works for himself (AB) Yinka Shonibare was not working under the pressure of fulfilling the wishes of the King so he was arting according to what he wanted to express. (AG)

1.3. Apprenticed with a Goldsmith, James Gilliland and portrait painter, David Martin (TL)

1.3.1. Compare similar Both had a love for art Both were passionate about art. Raeburn did not have formal training, but still strived to pursued art. And Shonibare still continued to do art even after he got paralysed and was disabled. difference Shonibare went to Art school.

1.4. A lot emphasis given in the centre , the man stands out more against the blurry background (AS)

1.4.1. Compare similar The figure stands pout against the background (AB) difference

1.5. Married a wealthy widow (TL)

1.5.1. Compare similar difference

1.6. Knighted in 1822 when the King visited Edinburgh. (AG)

1.6.1. Compare similar Both were credited for their artworks. difference

1.7. Apprenticed as a goldsmith originally and showed immense artistic potential from a young age. (AG)

1.7.1. Compare similar difference Finished an art school (AB)

2. Reverend Robert Walker skating on Duddingston Loch

2.1. A person of high power is shown doing something fun, so different subject matter from paintings of that time (EZ)

2.1.1. Compare similar Both artworks display the ice-skating aspect of the original painting. (AG) difference The difference between the painting and the sculpture about showing a person of high power is that the sculpture is a headless figure. This trait opens up the subject matter to interpretation, and the fact that the original painting was meant to be a person of high power contributes to a humorous aspect of the sculpture. Both subject matters can be interpreted differently. (AG)

2.2. Medium: Oil on Canvas, Style: Romanticism

2.2.1. Compare similar difference Medium: Dutch was A sculpture NOT a painting (EZ)

2.3. Considered an iconic painting of Scottish Culture (AG)

2.3.1. Compare similar difference The sculpture by Yinka Shonibare was not considered iconic of his time and it wasn't labelled as the pride or masterpiece of any one culture/country. However, the sculpture is still well known and exhibited. (AG)

2.4. High status man, ice skating in his formal clothing (AB)

2.4.1. Compare similar difference Compared to Shonibare's work, he removed all the formality of the image to the point that it is a mixture of exoticness and movement. (SK)

2.5. Dull and sombre colours used on canvas, gives gloomy miserable tone (EZ)

2.5.1. Compare similar difference Yinka Shonibare's work tends to follow the experimentation with extremely bright patterns which do not match each other. Raeburn's work is very toned and follows a very strict pattern of colours which compliment and fall on the same line with each other. (SK)

2.6. Blended undefined background compared to defined clear figure in the foreground (AB)

2.6.1. Compare similar Shonibare's sculpture is brightly coloured due to the Dutch Wax fabrics used, therefore they are very outstanding compared to its background, which was white (surrounded by white walls and "snow-covered" floors) (TL) difference Shonibare's artwork was a sculpture, so the background is the setting of where the sculpture was placed. (TL)

2.7. Dark cold shades of the painting (AB)

2.7.1. Compare similar Cold shades of the background with a non defined background (AB) The boots and socks have similar colour. Which are dark and brown. (BY) difference Shonibare used Dutch Wax fabrics which are brightly coloured and has loud bold patterns on them. The colours brighten up the mood of the sculpture. (TL)

2.8. Painting displays Raeburns experimentation with tone and contrast (ST)

2.8.1. Compare similar a modern version of a similar experimentation with different tones and colours (AB) difference

2.9. Painted during the Scottish Enlightenment and is meant to represent an icon of respect and grace, highlighting the Reverend's accomplished and poised disposition. (AG)

2.9.1. Compare similar difference Is an icon to portray racial differences (AB)

2.10. Colours in the background blend into each other, very undefined (EZ)

2.10.1. Compare similar Compared to the sculpture by Yinka Shonibare, both the painting and the sculpture are exhibited with an undefined background, (sculpture: white room and frozen floor) (painting: faded browns, greys, and blues) that specifically highlight the figures in the centre - the ice skaters. (AG) difference

2.11. Movement is shown unlike other Henry Raeburn's portraits (BY)

2.11.1. Compare similar Both works show movement by showing scratches on the ground and the pose of the subject. (BY) difference An ability to view a moving figure from every angle makes it more fixed in a position (AB)

2.11.2. As a figure skater myself,

2.12. The Reverend, known as "The Skating Minister" was a member of one of the first figures kating clubs in the world. "The Edinburgh Skating club" (SK)

2.12.1. Compare similar difference Instead of having the focus on the reverend, Yinka Shonibare wanted the focus to remain upon the clothing and the pose. (SK)

2.12.2. In the figure skating community, this sort of pose would suggest an ‘exit’ out of a pirouette or jump. However, his hands being close together contradicts this, as a person moving backwards would need the guidance of hands. However one could argue that his hands are close together due to cold surroundings and the attempt of staying warm This suggests that Raeburn made Walked to be painted to only refer the most obvious of pose to right away convey that he is a Ice dancer, in context, a figure skater.

2.13. Can't see the left arm so I thought the arms are folded but when i looked at the sculpture, the person is actually stretching his left arm but the viewers can not see at some angles. (BY)

2.13.1. Compare similar At some angle, the two artworks look the same(BY) difference However, in Yinka's work, you can actually see the hidden, not drawn part of the Henry's work. (BY)

2.14. The style is similar to the the Renaissance period that it was painted in, yet it is very different because such a high posted figure is portrayed as doing a playful action - ice skating (AB)

2.14.1. Compare similar Both the sculpture and the painting portrayed a figure that was skating in an effortless pose - gliding across the flat surface of ice. (AG) difference

2.15. The reverend is still in his formal clothes throughout the skating (EZ)

2.15.1. Compare similar The sculpture also wears clothing that are similar and quite formal (EZ) difference However, the colours of the fabrics of the sculpture is bright and vibrant which makes the clothing look less formal and more playful (EZ)

2.16. Reverend Robert Walker was a Church of Scotland Minister and Minister of Canongate Kirk, as well as a member of the first figure skating club formed anywhere in the world (Edinburgh Skating Club). (AG)

3. Yinka Shonibare

3.1. Physical disability that paralyses one side of his body (BY)

3.1.1. Compare similar He was mentally paralysed difference Henry Raeburn didn't have disability. (BY) was fully capable (AB)

3.2. He studied in a boarding school in London (TL)

3.2.1. Compare similar They studied in the UK. (anonymous crab) (aka Tiffany) difference Sir H didnt (AB)

3.3. British-Nigerian artist. Born in London in 1962. At 3, moved to Nigeria and at 17 returned to Britain. (SK)

3.3.1. Compare similar Both are in touch with the cultures they were exposed to, no matter how many. (AG) difference Raeburn stayed and grew up in Scotland in most of his lifetime. (TL)

3.4. His work is usually about questioning the meaning of cultural and national identity and legacy of colonialism. (EZ)

3.4.1. Compare similar difference Raeburn's work was mostly portraits of significant figures in Scotland at the time

3.5. From a high middle class Nigerian family. (TL)

3.5.1. Compare similar Both artists have siblings (TL) difference Raeburn was the son of a mill owner, but after his father died, his brother was the one who raised him. (TL) Shonibare was raised by a financially wealthy family, as his father was an upper-middle class lawyer (TL)

3.6. Most of his artwork centered around transport or nice physical poses. This was a interesting thing, because it is a contrast from his disability. He had things such as dancing, the ice reverend, cars, fighting, bicycles and airplanes. (SK)

3.6.1. Compare difference However, his other works are usually portraits of still figures (EZ) similar Raeburn also depicts movement in the "reverend on ice" (EZ)

3.7. Refers to himself as a "postcolonial hybrid", and his works mainly focus on mixing his two separate cultures. (SK)

3.7.1. Compare similar Raeburn did not come from a wealthy or influential background, however he married rich becoming influential. He then becomes a hybrid between his undereducated past and connections he has with people of influence (ST) difference Compared to Sir Henry Raeburn, Henry is a local person with no immigration past. Shonibare has a past of multiculturalism. (SK) Sir Henry Raeburn was solely focused on highlighting the pride of his culture - the iconic figures and their accomplishments. He most definitely does not mix two separate cultures and would not be related to the idea of a "post-colonial hybrid". (AG)

3.8. Interested in the intertwined relationship between Europe and Africa (EZ)

3.8.1. Compare similar difference Raeburn has no ties to Africa so he doesn't really care about Africa (EZ) Interest in the interaction within his own culture (AB)

3.9. His artworks examine the interrelationship between Africa and Europe, as well as their political and economic histories. (TL)

3.10. Yinka Shonibare MBE was born in London, England, in 1962 and grew up in Lagos, Nigeria. He specialises as a British-Nigerian artist and studied at the Byam Shaw School of Art, London (1984-89). He earned an MA from Goldsmiths College, London University in 1991 and is well known for his costumed dioramas that make use of colorful cloth and batik in order to explore racial and cultural identity and confront Colonialism. (AG)

3.10.1. Compare Similar difference Raeburn was a self taught artist at first, never went to art school

3.11. Had someone help him to do his artwork due to his physical disability (AB)

3.11.1. Compare Difference: Raeburn didnt have any physical disabilities

3.12. His work depicts or represents ideas ranging from contemporary identity politics, cultural history, the legacy of colonialism and the structures of international trade. (AS)

3.13. His works deal with significant historical aspects including race and class, through his creations of painting, sculpture, photography, film and even performances. (AS)

3.13.1. Compare similar Raeburn also paints (EZ) difference However, he only paints, he does not use other forms of art expression (EZ)

3.14. He uses a wide range of media, showcasing “construction of identity” as well as “interrelationship between Africa and Europe”. (AS)

4. Reverend on Ice 2005

4.1. Used Dutch wax on the sculpture. Contrasts with Raeburn's paintings, as it uses bright colours which makes the sculpture seem more playful. (TL)

4.1.1. Compare similar Both stick with one colour scheme - e.g. Raeburn stuck with dark, dull tones while Shonibare stuck with warm, bright colours. difference The painting contains mostly dull, dark tones whereas the sculpture shows bright and vibrant tones of the fabric (EZ)

4.2. fabric produced by the Dutch. Indonesian batik design. failed to appeal to the Indonesian textile market for whom it was intended. (BY)

4.2.1. Therefore, it was transported to southern African nations, where the style became a cultural icon. This is why Shonibare used it, as it was by form a western clothing, but by the look and design it was much more exotic. (SK) Compare similar difference

4.3. Headless sculptures shows that these sculptures did not represent a certain race/culture (TL)

4.3.1. Compare similar difference Raeburn's painting shows the face in significant detail especially compared to the background of his own painting, so puts a lot of emphasis on the face and clearly shows that the reverend is white (EZ)

4.4. top part of the costume look like Indonesian costume but the bottom part is Scottish. (BY)

4.4.1. Compare similar The bottom part like the socks and the shoes are Scottish like the painting of reverend. (BY) The attire (cutting) of the sculpture is very similar to the one in Raeburn's painting. (TL) difference

4.5. He commented that he liked the ‘contradiction between the serious man and the playful gesture’ (SK)

4.5.1. Compare similar difference

4.6. His works do not include any revealing of skin, since he didn't want to have any focus on racial features. (SK)

4.6.1. Through not showing heads or skin, he wants to make the focus towards the clothing and form of the sculpture. For example, in Reverend on Ice, he wants the focus on the clothing and pose. (SK)

4.6.2. Compare similar difference When comparing to Sir Henry's work, his works are very focused on WHO and HOW (Status, pose) they are in the artwork; When Yinka focuses to discard these features and focus entirely on the cultural aspect of the pose and clothing. (SK)

4.7. Fabrics used are often considered authentic African fabrics, but he states that the fabrics have a cross cultural background of their own (EZ)

4.7.1. This cross cultural backround relates to the artists life, being born in England and then Moving to Nigeria, the cultural mix is reflective of his own (ST)

4.7.2. Compare similar The attempt to make both artworks in a traditional outfit (AB) difference Fabrics are of traditional Scottish clothing and are painted (AB)

4.8. The sculpture was places in a large open space, The background is of cool greys, this contrasts the bright colour and detailing in the sculpture. (ST)

4.8.1. Compare Both placed in plain backgrounds (ST) difference In the original painting the background is of warmer tones, with uses of oranges and browns, as well as lighter areas of grey. The sculpture is placed in an area of only one colour, the grey gives a much cooler look/ effect (ST)

4.9. Sculpture employs use of 3D, dynamic view as opposed to the original painting, where the perspective is more static. (AG)

4.9.1. The original painting was also very small in size, unusual for Raeburns work. This gives a fixed perspective whereas the 3D aspect of Shonibares work allows all aspects of the figure to be veiwed (ST)

5. A Analysis of formal qualities

5.1. all linked to mood

6. B Interpretation of function and purpose

6.1. why did each artist make their work

6.2. what is the diffferene between a painting and a sculpure

6.3. cultural?

7. C Evaluation of cultural significance

7.1. The Scottish Enlightenment was the period in 18th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. (AS)

7.2. How does the two works represent their times?

8. D Making comparisons and connections

8.1. See all the stuff added

9. E Presentation and subject-specific language

10. Elements and Principles


10.1.1. Colours: Dark tones, greys on the lower edges, dusty brown on the upper half (AS)

10.1.2. Lines: We see a thin white line bordering the man (AS)

10.1.3. Layers:


10.2.1. Didn't choose to place the head as he was black and disabled and wanted to focus more on he visuals

10.2.2. Mood: humorous