Lesson Planning Models for the EFL Classroom

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Lesson Planning Models for the EFL Classroom by Mind Map: Lesson Planning Models for the EFL Classroom

1. Presentation, Practice, Production Model

1.1. Presentation Stage:

1.1.1. Teacher highly controls the teaching and learning.

1.1.2. Materials include target linguistic terms.

1.1.3. Presented in DEDUCTIVE (teacher gives explanations) or INDUCTIVE (students induce rules and meanings) mode.

1.1.4. Teacher presents new words, gices examples, writes them on board,

1.2. Practice Stage

1.2.1. Teacher controls students.

1.2.2. Activities aimed at accuracy of forms.

1.2.3. Drills are common activities.

1.2.4. This stage is oral or written.

1.3. Production Stage

1.3.1. To achieve fluency in linguistic use.

1.3.2. Students freer to use structures.

1.3.3. Activities include discussions, debates, role-plays, problem-solving activities, opinion and information gaps.

2. Task Based Language Teaching Model

2.1. Pre Task Introduction Stage

2.1.1. Teacher introduces tasks and brainstorms ideas using pictures, short texts, etc.

2.1.2. Students note down new words and phrases.

2.2. Task Cycle - Task

2.2.1. Students prepare task in small groups or pairs.

2.2.2. Emphasis is on fluency and communication.

2.2.3. Teacher acts as a monitor and encourages students.

2.3. Task Cycle - Planning

2.3.1. Students interact and report to class on how they did the task.

2.3.2. The students rehearse what they will say.

2.3.3. Teacher acts as a language advisor and helps the students with oral and written tasks.

2.4. Task Cycle - Report

2.4.1. Students report the outcome of the task.

2.4.2. A public presentation and a focus on accuracy.

2.4.3. Teacher acts as a chairperson selecting who will speak.

2.4.4. Teacher comments and rephrases, giving feedback.

2.4.5. Examples of reports include listing, comparing, experience sharing, creating, ordering, sorting, problem-solving.

2.5. Post Task - Listening Input

2.5.1. Students listen to a recording of fluent or native speakeres doing the same task to compare.

2.5.2. Students compare the way they did it to that of the fluents speakers way of doing the task.

2.6. Post Task - Language Analysis and Practice

2.6.1. Students engage in language analysis tasks.

2.6.2. Students practice language structures in controlled activities.

2.6.3. Activities include choral repetition, memory challenge games, matching, etc.

3. Engage, Study, Activate Model - Jeremy Harmer

3.1. Engage Stage

3.1.1. Students' interests are aroused by involving their emotions.

3.1.2. Activities and materials include games, music, discussions, stimulating pictures, dramatic stories, amusing anecdotes.

3.2. Study Stage

3.2.1. Focus is on the construction of language. It is explicit or implicit.

3.2.2. Can range from the practice of a single soound to the study of a complete transcript.

3.2.3. Other examples are vowel sounds in words, the language used for social invitations, the use of pronouns in a text.

3.3. Activate Stage

3.3.1. Aim is to get the students to use the target language as freely as possible.

3.3.2. Students can use any language that is appropriate.

3.3.3. Activities include role-plays, recording a radio commercial, debates and discussions, writing stories and poems.

4. Bilash's B-SLIM Model

4.1. 1. Teacher Background Stage

4.1.1. The teacher's experience.

4.1.2. The teacher's education.

4.1.3. The teacher's language competence.

4.1.4. The teacher's values.

4.1.5. The teacher's travel and cultural experiences.

4.1.6. The professional opportunities that the teacher has experienced.

4.1.7. Teacher's ongoing reflection and insights.

4.2. 2. Planning and Preparation Stage.

4.2.1. Shows not only HOW and WHAT to prepare for a lesson but also gives perspectives of understanding language learners.

4.2.2. Planning means thinking about the sequence of events and the pacing at which you instruct a lesson.

4.2.3. Preparation is the time that is involved in preparing the materials needed for a lesson.

4.3. 3. The “Giving It” Stage

4.3.1. Begins when the teacher enters the classroom.

4.3.2. Consists of ways to make what is taught comprehensible to the students.

4.3.3. Shows how to put into practice research from cognitive psychology, such as George A. Miller’s magical number of 7 plus or minus 2, Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences, cognitive capacity, cognitive load and memory aids.

4.3.4. The teacher models what they are teaching. Examples include watching a video clip, listening to an audio clip, bringing in a guest speaker,

4.3.5. The comprehension input stage, akin to STephen Krashen's Comprehensible Input Hypothesis.

4.3.6. This stage is about choosing what to teach, and how to teach it, or how to present what you are going to teach.

4.4. 4. The “Getting It” Stage

4.4.1. Students' need to have an opportunity to get it, or understand it, and to remember what it is that the teacher has taught them.

4.4.2. This is the INTAKE phase, where the learner is taking in new information.

4.5. 5. The “Using It” Stage

4.5.1. After the students understand it, they have to use it.

4.5.2. The learners are functioning from their memory. They are learning through language, doing a task, or problem-solving, instead of just learning the language.

4.5.3. This is the UPTAKE phase, as they are using the language, and what is in their memories.

4.6. 6. The “Proving It” Stage

4.6.1. Here, we want to reach our goal, and prove it.

4.7. 7. Assessment Stage

4.7.1. Throughout the whole model, the teacher is concerned with assessment.

4.7.2. This involves observing two things: focussing on the learning that is taking place, and ensuring that the learner is able to learn.

4.7.3. The teacher is assessing during the giving it stage, during the intake stage, during the uptake or using it stage, and during the proving it stage.

4.8. 8. The Evaluation Stage

4.8.1. Evaluation usually represents the summative nature of learning. It may be in the form of an examination that culminates the semester or a grade.