14 disabilities

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14 disabilities by Mind Map: 14 disabilities

1. Deaf-blindness: defined as having simultaneous visual and hearing impairments. Modifications and adaptations: alter assignments (ex. opportunity to respond orally), adapt instruction (ex. provide tutor-aide, provide experience-based instruction), adapt materials (ex. enhance contrast, use toys that produce low-frequency sounds). Assistive technology: assistive listening device (FM systems, vibrotactile aids, or auditory loops) and low vision devices (CCTV, monoculars)

2. Deafness: defined as a severe hearing impairment that affects how linguistical information is processed. Accomodations: specialized seating arrangement, reduction of auditory and visual distractions. Modifications: Modify written and reading assignments, allow for extra time, reduce quantity of tests or test items. Assistive technology: Telecommunications Relay Service (TRS)

3. Autism: defined as a development disability that affects verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction. Modifications and adaptations: Visuals for instruction, sensory activities, giving the student choices and control, adaptations of physical environments, provide trained peer support. Assistive technology: Visual representation systems (Boardmaker), communication devices (Maestro). Case study:

4. Developmental Delay: a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development. Accomodations: Seating arrangement at an individual desk, setting up routines and procedures that provide predictability. Modifications: simplify information on worksheets, revise lesson plans to include several opportunities to demonstrate the expected outcome. Assistive technology: visual timer.

5. Emotional disturbance: A condition showing one or more of the following characterstics - (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. Accomodations: Support the students inclusion, set clear behavioral guidelines for the entire class, recognize accomplishments, establish organization and routines. Modifications: break down assignments, extend time limit for assignments. Case study: http://www.chadd.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=4j4soREO6jU%3D. This is a study of a 7 year old boy who was diagnosed with both bipolar and ADHD. As a small child, he had several health issues, problems with seperation and irritibility, but was unusually bright and complex. At age 7, he showed symptoms of aggression and disruptiveness. He was also driven, hyperactive, and impulsive. He was sent to several psychiatrists and after extensive questioning and examinations, was finally diagnosed as both bipolar and ADHD. This case study shows the complex nature of mixed emotional disturbances and the need for a team approach to establish an effective IEP.

6. Hearing impairment: defined as an impairment in hearing that impairs a student´s learning, but is not classified as deafness. Accomodations: specialized seating arrangement, enunciate speech, allow extra time for processing information. Assistive technology: personal hearing device, personal FM system.

7. Intellectual disability: defined as a subaverage general educational functioning that adversely affects a student´s educational performance. Modifications: functional activities, repetition of concepts, lower student-teacher ration (3:1), hands on learning. Modifications: Quest work space. Assistive technology: pentop computers, graphic organizers.

8. Other health impairment: These include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, heart conditions, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis,rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette Syndrome. The accomodations and modifications are specific and vary according to the impairment. For attention deficit possible modifications include: giving the student a lighter work-load, helping them establish a schedule and routine, assigning them a note-taking partner, seating away from distractions (window, door), allowing them to work more on a computer. Assistive technology: computers,

9. Specific learning disability: a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language. It includes the following conditions: perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The modifications and accomodations vary for each specific learning disability. For dyslexia, assignments can be broken into smaller parts, online reading can be given, and spelling lists can be modified. One assistive technology tool available is alphasmart, a lap size computer device.

10. Speech or language impairments: defined as a communication disorder stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment. Modifications: allow the student to substitute oral assignments with written papers, give students more time to express themselves, give assignments orally and written, give simpole one step directions. Assistive technology: computer software, like first words, augmentative or alternative communication (AAC)

11. Visual impairment: can include partial sight or blindness. Accomodations: Use large print and braile in communications and documents, adjust lighting, provide magnification devices. Assign human readers to help with printed and handwritten materials that cannot be converted electronically. Assistive technology: Synthetic speech output to translate text to speech, closed-circuit television to enlarge printed documents.

12. Traumatic Brain injury: defined as open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. Accomodations: Avoid placing student in high pressure situations (e.g., short time frames, extensive volume of work; highly competitive, seating near front of the classroom, provide extra or extended breaks. Modifications: reduce quantity of assignments, allow for extra time on assignments and tests and Assess knowledge using multiple-choice instead of open-ended questions on exams. Assistive technology: small voice recorders, handheld computers.

13. Multiple disabilities: defined as having simultaneous impairments. Modifications and accomodations: these depend on the combination of the student´s disabilities and can vary greatly. Generally these students require significant modifications and accomodations in the classroom. Case study: http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/multiple/#story Sharon is a five year who has multiple disabilities due to a lack of oxygen when she was born. She has an intellectual disability, problems with mobility and a speech impairment. She recieved early intervention and now as a preschool student receives special education services. She uses a picture board to help her communicate