My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Nature of Teaching

1.1. Teachers are highly qualified when they meet three conditions- 1. A college degree. 2. full certification or licensure 3. demonstrate content knowledge in the subject they are teaching

1.2. Teachers are responsible for student learning. If they can't assume responsibility for school improvement, how likely is it that schools will improve in terms of students learning?

1.3. Teachers must be skilled in many different areas. They are expected to play many different roles in their lives. These roles include colleague, friend, nurturer of the learner, facilitator of learning, researcher, program developer, administrator, decision maker, professional leader, and community activist.

2. Curriculum & Pedagogy

2.1. The humanist curriculum- Reflects the idealists philosophy that knowledge of the traditional liberal arts is the cornerstone of an educated citizenry and that the purpose of education is to present to students the best of what had been thought and written.

2.1.1. Superintendent- Matt Massey, District- Madison County district 8, State Superintendent Thomas R. Bice,

2.1.2. State Senators- Richard Shelby, Jeff Sessions

2.1.3. House of Representatives- Mo Brooks

2.1.4. State Board of Education Members Mary Scott Hunter, District 08

2.1.5. Transformative tradition- the purpose is to change the student in some meaningful way, including intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally.

3. Sociology of Education

3.1. Knowledge and attitudes- It is found that the higher the social class background of the student, the higher his or her achievement level. Other research indicates that differences between schools in terms of their academic programs and policies do make differences in student learning.

3.1.1. The effective schools research demonstrates that academically oriented schools do produce higher rates of learning. Research has also indicated that the ore education individuals receive, the more likely they are to read newspapers, books, magazines, and to participate in politics and public affairs. More years of schooling leads to greater knowledge and social participation.

3.2. Employment- Majority of students believe that graduating from college will lead to greater employment opportunities. They are right. In 1986, 54% of the 8 million college grads in the U.S. entered careers and technical jobs. Large organizations, such as corporations, require high levels of education for white-collar, managerial, or administrative jobs.

3.3. Education and Mobility- Most Americans believe that more education leads to economic and social mobility. Individuals fall and rise based on their merit.

3.3.1. The number of years of education is one measure of educational attainment, but where people go to school also affects the mobility.

3.3.1.1. Provate and public schools- Private and public school students may receive the same amount of education, but a private school diploma may act as a "mobility escalator" because it represents a more prestigious educational route.

3.4. sociological perspective- emphasizes the power that external forces have on individual choices and how these are often related to group differences within the social stratification system.

4. Politics of Education

4.1. Traditional

4.1.1. Traditional beliefs are those very day beliefs that go back to our ancestors times. They teach us the importance of family, home and daily life. I am a traditional person and I believe that these things are very important to learn.

4.1.1.1. Traditionalists believe in "back to basics" curriculum such as, literature, history and math.

4.2. Conservative

4.2.1. I am on the conservative side. I believe that however you succeed when you are younger has a big impact on your success as an adult. I also believe that the individual is ultimately the only one that has control over the outcome of their problems.

4.2.1.1. Contributors- Charles Darwin and William Graham Sumner

4.2.1.2. Individuals have the capacity to earn or not earn their place within a market economy, and that solutions to problems should also be addressed at an individual level.

4.2.1.3. Believe that schools socialize children into appropriate adult roles necessary to maintain the social order. The role of the school is essential to both economic productivity and social stability.

5. Philosophy of Education

5.1. Progessivism-

5.1.1. Generic Notations- Dewey believed that the school was an "embryonic community" where children could learn new skills both experientially as well as from books, in addition to traditional information, which would enable them to work in a democratic society. pg. 187

5.1.2. Key researchers- John Dewey

5.1.3. Goal of education- To integrate children into a democratic society. He believed that if schools instilled democratic and cooperative values in children, they would be prepared as adults to transform the social order into a more democratic one. pg 188

5.1.4. Role of the teacher- The teacher assumes the peripheral position of facilitator. The teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps to plan and implement courses of study. The teacher also writes curriculum and must have a command of several disciplines in order to create and implement curriculum. pg. 189

5.1.5. Method of instruction- Children learn both individually and in groups. Desks are replaced with tables. Children are able participate in group conversation. They are able to pursue group study or independent work.

5.1.6. Curriculum- Core curriculum. all academic and vocational disciplines are integrated and interconnected throughout all lessons.

6. History of Education

6.1. Progressive Era- Progressives believed in experiential education, a curriculum that responded to both the needs of students and the times, child -centered education, freedom and individualism, and the relativism of academic standards in the name of equity.

6.2. Historical Interpretation of U.S. Education- knowledge centered education, a traditional subject centered curriculum, teacher centered education, discipline and authority, and the defense of academic standards in the name of excellence.

7. Schools as Organizations

7.1. Professionalization- Sociologist Dan Lortie found that when he compared elementary school teachers to other professionals, he found that the prerequisites for professionalism among elementary school teachers were vaguely defined or absent all together.

7.1.1. Teachers receive their income from "one big clint". There is little opportunity for teachers to teach independently of their school, and thus there is little opportunity for teachers to gain a reputation for excellence outside of their school or their school district.

8. Equality of Opportunity and Educational Outcomes

8.1. The National Center for Education Statistics publishes yearly statistical reports that provide important statistical data on different educational issues. "The Condition of Education".

8.2. Some of the data given is achievement gaps between hispanics, whites & blacks; parental level of education; and respect to gender.

8.3. Females have higher levels of reading, they have higher levels of mathematics, but females achieve lower in science then males. It has been shown that blacks enter kindergarten with lower reading and mathematics skills then whites.

8.4. "The Digest of Educational Statistics" indicates that white students outperform all other students, with the exception of Asian-American students.

8.5. The "Education of All Handicapped Children Law" was passed in 1975. It included 6 basic principles: (1) the right of access to public education programs; (2) the individualization of services; (3) the principle of "least restrictive environment"; (4) the scope of broadened services to be provided by the schools and a set of procedures for determining them; (5) the general guidelines for identifying disability; and (6) the principles of primary state and local responsibilities. The purpose of the law was to guarantee that children with special needs were properly identified and placed in appropriate classes, defined as the "least restrictive environment."

8.6. Responses to Coleman round one- Edmonds argued strongly that all students could learn and that differences between schools had a significant impact on student learning.

9. Educational Inequality

9.1. School financing- School finances play a big part in educational equality. A school that is located in the country or a smaller city is more likely to have little finances. Students do not have much access to electronics and schools are unable to fund quality programs that would benefit academics.

9.2. Public schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources. However most of the funds come from local and state taxes. Property taxes are a major source for school funding. So wherever the nicer houses are located, that's where the schools with the most funds will be.

9.3. Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds do not receive equality of opportunity, at least in terms of funding. The question of funding is nota moral issue alone; it is a political issue, as different communities struggle to give their children what they consider the best possible education.

9.4. According to Coleman's report- school differences and resources do not adequately explain unequal performance by working-class and non-white students. Some researches argued that students came to school without the requisite intellectual and social skills necessary for school success.

9.5. Middle class culture values hard work and initiative, the delay of immediate gratification for future reward, and the importance of schooling as a means for future success.

9.6. Children from other countries a cultures have different beliefs as far as schooling. Some children don't have the same privilege as others to attend a nice school or a school at all.

10. Educational Reform

10.1. School to Work- Intent was to extend what had been a vocational emphasis to non-college-bound- students regarding skills necessary for successful employment and to stress the importance of work-based learning.

10.2. School-to-Work-Opportunities Act of 1994- This law provided seed money to states and local partnerships of business, labor, government, education, and community organizations to develop school-to-work states.

10.3. System provided the following: Relevant education, allowing students to explore different careers and see what skills are required in their working environment; Skills, obtained from structured training and work-based learning experiences, including necessary skills of a particular career as demonstrated in a working environment; Valued credentials, establishing industry- standard benchmarks and developing education and training standards that ensure that proper education is received for each career.

10.4. Every school-to-work system had to contain 3 core elements; (1) school-based learning; (2) work-based learning;(3) connecting activities

10.5. Researchers have suggested that these programs often failed to fulfill their promise