Australian Curriculum - Technologies

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Australian Curriculum - Technologies by Mind Map: Australian Curriculum - Technologies

1. Strand 1 - Design & Technologies

1.1. Knowledge and Understanding

1.1.1. Years 5 and 6 6.1 Investigate how people in design and technologies occupations address competing considerations including sustainability in the design of products, services, and environments and for current and future use 6.2 Investigate how forces or electrical energy can control movement, sound or light in a designed product or system 6.3 Investigate how and why food and fibre are produced in managed environments 6.4 Investigate the role of food preparation in maintaining good health and the importance of food safety and hygiene 6.5 Investigate characteristics and properties of a range of materials, systems, components, tools and equipment and evaluate the impact of their use

1.1.2. Years 3 and 4 4.1 Recognise the role of people in design and technologies occupations and explore factors, including sustainability that impact on the design of products, services and environments to meet community needs 4.2 Investigate how forces and the properties of materials affect the behaviour of a product or system 4.3 Investigate food and fibre production and food technologies used in modern and traditional societies 4.4 Investigate the suitability of materials, components, systems, tools and equipment for a range of purposes

1.1.3. Foundation to Year 2 2.1 Identify how people design and produce familiar products, services and environments and consider sustainability to meet personal and local community needs 2.2 Explore how technologies use forces to create movement in products 2.3 Explore how plants and animals are grown for food, clothing and shelter and how food is selected and prepared for healthy eating 2.4 Explore the characteristics and properties of materials and components that are used to produce designed solutions

1.1.4. • the use, development and impact of technologies in people’s lives

1.1.5. • design concepts across a range of technologies contexts

1.2. Processes and Production Skills

1.2.1. • critiquing, exploring and investigating needs or opportunities

1.2.2. • generating, developing and evaluating design ideas for designed solutions

1.2.3. • planning, producing (making) and evaluating designed solutions

1.2.4. Foundation to Year 2 2.5 Explore needs or opportunities for designing and the technologies needed to realise designed solutions 2.6 Visualise, generate, develop and communicate design ideas through describing, drawing and modelling 2.7 Use materials, components, tools, equipment and techniques to safely make designed solutions 2.8 Use personal preferences to evaluate the success of design ideas, processes and solutions including their care for environment 2.9 Sequence steps for making designed solutions and working collaboratively

1.2.5. Years 3 and 4 4.5 Critique needs or opportunities for designing and explore and test a variety of materials, components, tools and equipment and the techniques needed to produce designed solutions 4.6 Generate, develop, and communicate design ideas and decisions using technical terms and graphical representation techniques 4.7 Select and use materials, components, tools and equipment using safe work practices to make designed solutions 4.8 Evaluate design ideas, processes and solutions based on criteria for success developed with guidance and including care for the environment 4.9 Plan a sequence of production steps when making designed solutions individually and collaboratively

1.2.6. Years 5 and 6 6.6 Critique needs or opportunities for designing and investigate materials, components, tools, equipment and processes to achieve intended designed solutions 6.7 Generate, develop and communicate design ideas and processes for audiences using appropriate technical terms and graphical representation techniques 6.8 Apply safe procedures when using a variety of materials, components, tools, equipment and techniques to make designed solutions 6.9 Negotiate criteria for success that include consideration of sustainability to evaluate design ideas, processes and solutions 6.10 Develop project plans that include consideration of resources when making designed solutions individually and collaboratively

2. Strand 2 - Digital Technologies

2.1. Knowledge and Understanding

2.1.1. Years 5 and 6 6.1 Investigate the main components of common digital systems, their basic functions and interactions and how such digital systems may connect together to form networks to transmit data 6.2 Investigate how digital systems use whole numbers as a basis for representing all types of data

2.1.2. Years 3 and 4 4.1 Explore and use a range of digital systems with peripheral devices for different purposes, and transmit different types of data 4.2 Recognise different types of data and explore how the same data can be represented in different ways

2.1.3. Foundation to Year 2 2.1 Identify and use digital systems (hardware and software components) for a purpose 2.2 Recognise and explore patterns in data and represent data as pictures, symbols and diagrams

2.1.4. how data are represented and structured symbolically

2.1.5. the components of digital systems: software, hardware and networks

2.1.6. the use, development and impact of information systems in people’s lives

2.2. Processes and Production Skills

2.2.1. collecting, managing and interpreting data when creating information, and the nature and properties of data, how it is collected and interpreted

2.2.2. using a range of digital systems and their components and peripherals

2.2.3. defining problems and specifying and implementing their solutions

2.2.4. creating and communicating information, especially online, and interacting safely using appropriate technical and social protocols

2.2.5. Foundation to Year 2 2.3 Collect, explore and sort data, and use digital systems to present the data creatively 2.4 Follow, describe and represent a sequence of steps and decisions (algorithms) needed to solve simple problems 2.5 Explore how people safely use common information systems to meet information, communication and recreation needs 2.6 Work with others to create and organise ideas and information using information systems, and share these in safe online environments

2.2.6. Years 3 and 4 4.3 Collect, access and present different types of data using simple software to create information and solve problems 4.4 Define simple problems, and describe and follow a sequence of steps and decisions (algorithms) needed to solve them 4.5 Implement digital solutions as simple visual programs with algorithms involving branching (decisions), and user input 4.6 Explain how developed solutions and existing information systems meet common personal, school or community needs; and envisage new ways of using them 4.7 Work with others to plan the creation and communication of ideas and information safely, applying agreed ethical and social protocols

3. Aims and Objectives

3.1. are creative, innovative and enterprising when using traditional, contemporaryand emerging technologies, and understand how technologies have developed over time

3.2. effectively and responsibly select and manipulate appropriate technologies, resources, materials, data, systems, tools and equipment when designing and creating products, services, environments and digital solutions

3.3. critique and evaluate technologies processes to identify and create solutions to a range of problems or opportunities

3.4. investigate, design, plan, manage, create, produce and evaluate technologies solutions

3.5. engage confidently with technologies and make informed, ethical and sustainable decisions about technologies for preferred futures including personal health and wellbeing, recreation, everyday life, the world of work and enterprise, and the environment.

4. General Capabilities

4.1. Literacy

4.1.1. Students become literate as they develop the knowledge, skills and dispositions to interpret and use language confidently for learning and communicating in and out of school and for participating effectively in society. Literacy involves students in listening to, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating oral, print, visual and digital texts, and using and modifying language for different purposes in a range of contexts. Students develop literacy capability as they learn how to communicate ideas, concepts and detailed proposals to a variety of audiences; recognise how language can be used to manipulate meaning; read and interpret detailed written instructions for specific technologies, often including diagrams and procedural writings such as software user manuals, design briefs, patterns and recipes; prepare accurate, annotated engineering drawings, software instructions and coding; write project outlines, briefs, concept and project management proposals, evaluations, engineering, life cycle and project analysis reports; and prepare detailed specifications for production. Draft Australian Curriculum: Technologies – February 2013 13 By learning the literacy of Technologies students understand that language varies according to context and they increase their ability to use language flexibly. Technologies vocabulary is often technical and includes specific terms for concepts, processes and production. Students learn to understand that much technological information is presented in the form of drawings, diagrams, flow charts, models, tables and graphs. They also appreciate the importance of listening, talking and discussing in technologies processes, especially in articulating, questioning and evaluating ideas.

4.2. Numeracy

4.2.1. Students become numerate as they develop the knowledge and skills to use mathematics confidently across other learning areas at school and in their lives more broadly. Numeracy involves students in recognising and understanding the role of mathematics in the world and having the dispositions and capacities to use mathematical knowledge and skills purposefully. The Technologies curriculum provides opportunities for students to interpret and use mathematical knowledge and skills in a range of real-life situations. Students use number to calculate, measure and estimate; interpret and draw conclusions from statistics; measure and record throughout the process of generating ideas; develop, refine and test concepts; and cost and sequence when making products and managing projects. In using software, materials, tools and equipment, students work with the concepts of number, geometry, scale, proportion, measurement and volume. They use three-dimensional models, create accurate technical drawings, work with digital models and use algorithmic thinking in decision-making processes when designing and creating best-fit solutions.

4.3. Information and communication technology (ICT) capability

4.3.1. Students develop ICT capability as they learn to use ICT effectively and appropriately to access, create and communicate information and ideas, solve problems and work collaboratively, and in their lives beyond school. The capability involves students in learning to make the most of the digital technologies available to them. They adapt to new ways of doing things as technologies evolve, and limit the risks to themselves and others in a digital environment. While much of the explicit teaching of ICT occurs in the Digital Technologies subject, key ICT concepts and skills are strengthened, complemented and extended in Design and Technologies as students engage in a range of learning activities with ICT demands. In Digital Technologies, students create solutions that consider social and environmental factors when operating digital systems with digital information. They develop and apply an understanding of the characteristics of data, digital systems, audiences, procedures and computational thinking. They apply this when they investigate, communicate and create purpose-designed information solutions. Students learn to formulate problems, logically organise and analyse data and represent it in abstract forms. They automate solutions through algorithmic logic. Students determine the best combinations of data, procedures and human and physical resources to generate efficient and effective information solutions. In Design and Technologies students learn how to operate specific software tools and digital hardware to assist them to realise their design ideas. This occurs when they investigate, research and analyse information and evaluate design ideas. They communicate and Draft Australian Curriculum: Technologies – February 2013 14 collaborate online. Students develop innovative and creative design ideas; generate plans and diagrams to communicate their designs and produce solutions using digital technologies, for example creating simulations, drawings and models and manufacturing solutions (from basic drawing programs to computer-aided design/manufacture and rapid prototyping).

4.4. • Critical and creative thinking (CCT)

4.4.1. Students develop capability in critical and creative thinking as they learn to generate and evaluate knowledge, clarify concepts and ideas, seek possibilities, consider alternatives and solve problems. Critical and creative thinking are integral to activities that require students to think broadly and deeply using skills, behaviours and dispositions such as reason, logic, resourcefulness, imagination and innovation in all learning areas at school and in their lives beyond school. Students develop capability in critical and creative thinking as they imagine, generate, develop, produce and critically evaluate ideas. They take into account sustainability and changing economic, environmental and social needs and concerns. They develop reasoning and abstract thinking capabilities through challenging problems that do not have straightforward solutions. Students analyse problems, refine concepts and reflect upon the decision-making process by engaging in computational, design and systems thinking. They identify, explore and clarify technologies information and use that knowledge in a range of situations and challenges. Students think critically and creatively about possible, probable and preferred futures. They consider how technologies, data, information, materials and systems (past and present) impact upon our lives, and how these elements might be better designed and managed. Experimenting, drawing, modelling, designing and working with digital tools, equipment and software assists students to build their visual and spatial thinking and to create solutions, products, services and environments.

4.5. • Personal and social capability (PSC)

4.5.1. Students develop personal and social capability as they learn to understand themselves and others, and manage their relationships, lives, work and learning more effectively. The capability involves students in a range of practices including recognising and regulating emotions; developing empathy for others and understanding relationships, establishing and building positive relationships; making responsible decisions; working effectively in teams, handling challenging situations constructively and developing leadership skills. Students develop personal and social capability as they engage in project management. They direct their own learning, plan and carry out investigations, and become independent learners who can apply design thinking, technologies understanding and skills to decisions they will have to make in the future. Through collaborating with others, students develop their social and employability skills. They learn to work cooperatively in teams, make group decisions, resolve conflict and show leadership. Designing and innovation involve a degree of risk-taking and resilience, as students work with the uncertainty of sharing new ideas they develop resilience. The Technologies learning area enhances personal and social capability by developing students’ social awareness. This includes awareness of diversity, which students gain Draft Australian Curriculum: Technologies – February 2013 15 through researching and identifying user needs. Students consider past and present impacts of decisions on people, communities and environments. They develop social responsibility through understanding, tolerance of and empathy and respect for others and themselves.

4.6. • Ethical understanding (EU)

4.6.1. Students develop ethical understanding as they identify and investigate the nature of concepts, values, character traits and principles, and understand how reasoning can assist ethical judgment. Ethical understanding involves students in building a strong personal and socially oriented, ethical outlook that helps them to manage context, conflict and uncertainty, and to develop an awareness of the influence that their values and behaviour have on others. Students develop the capacity to understand and apply ethical and socially responsible principles when collaborating, creating, sharing and using technologies, materials, data, processes, tools and equipment. Using an ethical lens, they investigate past, current and future local, national, regional and global technological priorities. They evaluate their findings against the criteria of legality, environmental sustainability, economic viability, health, social and emotional responsibility and social awareness. They explore complex issues associated with technologies and consider possibilities. They are encouraged to develop informed values and attitudes. Students learn about their own roles and responsibilities as discerning citizens, including detecting bias and inaccuracies. Understanding the protection of data, intellectual property and individual privacy in the school environment assists students to become ethical digital citizens. Students learn about safe and ethical procedures for investigating and working with data, materials, people and animals. They consider the rights of others and their responsibilities in using sustainable practices that protect the planet and its life forms.

4.7. • Intercultural understanding (ICU).

4.7.1. Students develop intercultural understanding as they learn to value their own cultures, languages and beliefs, and those of others. They come to understand how personal, group and national identities are shaped, and the variable and changing nature of culture. The capability involves students in learning about and engaging with diverse cultures in ways that recognise commonalities and differences, create connections with others and cultivate mutual respect. In the Technologies learning area students consider how technologies are used in diverse communities at local, national, regional and global levels. This includes their impact and potential to transform people’s lives. Students explore ways in which past and present practices enable people to use technologies to interact with one another across cultural boundaries. Students investigate how cultural identities and traditions influence the function and form of solutions, products, services and environments designed to meet the needs of daily life. In their interactions with others, students consider the dynamic and complex nature of cultures, including values, beliefs, practices and assumptions. They recognise and respond to the challenges of cultural diversity. Students take responsibility for securing positive outcomes for members of all cultural groups including those faced with prejudice and misunderstanding.

5. Cross Curriculum Priorities

5.1. • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures

5.1.1. In the Australian Curriculum: Technologies the priority of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures provides creative, engaging and diverse learning contexts for students to value and appreciate the contribution by the world’s oldest continuous living cultures to past, present and emerging technologies. Students identify and explore the rich and diverse knowledge and understandings of technologies employed by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in past, present and future applications. They understand that the technologies of the world’s first and most continuous culture often developed through intimate knowledge of Country/Place and Culture. Students identify, explore, understand and analyse the interconnectedness between technologies and Identity, People, Culture and Country/Place. They explore how this intrinsic link guides Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in sustaining environments, histories, cultures and identities. Students apply this knowledge and understanding within Design and Technologies and Digital Technologies to create appropriate and sustainable products, services and environments to meet personal, local, national, regional and global demands. In this learning area, students explore how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ capacity for innovation is evident through the incorporation and application of a range of traditional, contemporary and emerging technologies and practices to purposefully build and/or maintain cultural, community and economic capacity. Students apply this knowledge and understanding throughout the processes of observation, critical and creative thought, action, experimentation and evaluation.

5.2. • Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia

5.2.1. In the Australian Curriculum: Technologies the priority of Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia provides diverse and authentic contexts to develop knowledge and understanding of technologies processes and production and related cultural, social and ethical issues. It enables students to recognise that interaction between human activity and the diverse environments of the Asia region continues to create the need for creative solutions and collaboration with others, including Australians, and has significance for the rest of the world. The Australian Curriculum: Technologies provides opportunities for students to explore traditional, contemporary and emerging technological achievements in the countries of the Asia region. Students apply this knowledge and understanding to create appropriate and sustainable products that reflect intercultural, creative and critical thinking to meet identified needs. In this learning area, students appreciate the diversity of the Asia region. They Draft Australian Curriculum: Technologies – February 2013 17 examine contributions that the people of the Asia region have made and continue to make to global technological advances. They consider the contributions that Australia has made and is making to the Asia region. Students explore Australia’s rich and ongoing engagement with the peoples and countries of Asia to create appropriate products and services to meet personal, community, national, regional and global needs.

5.3. • Sustainability.

5.3.1. In the Australian Curriculum: Technologies the priority of sustainability provides authentic contexts for creating preferred futures. When identifying and critiquing a need or opportunity, generating ideas and concepts, and producing solutions, students give prime consideration to sustainability by anticipating and balancing economic, environmental and social impacts. The Australian Curriculum: Technologies prepares students to take action to create more sustainable patterns of living. The curriculum focuses on the knowledge, understanding and skills necessary to design for effective sustainability action. It reflects on human need and equity of access to limited resources. The curriculum recognises that actions are both individual and collective endeavours shared across local and global communities. The curriculum provides a basis for students to explore their own and competing viewpoints, values and interests. Students work with complexity, uncertainty and risk; make connections between disparate ideas and concepts; self-critique; and propose creative and sustainable solutions. In this learning area, students focus on the knowledge, understanding and skills necessary to choose technologies and systems with regard to costs and benefits. They evaluate the extent to which the process and designed solutions embrace sustainability. Students reflect on past and current practices, and assess new and emerging technologies from a sustainability perspective.

6. Student Diversity

6.1. Students with disability

6.1.1. The Disability Discrimination Act 1992 and the Disability Standards for Education 2005 require education and training service providers to support the rights of students with disability to access the curriculum on the same basis as students without disability. Many students with disability are able to achieve educational standards commensurate with their peers, as long as the necessary adjustments are made to the way in which they are taught and to the means through which they demonstrate their learning. In some cases curriculum adjustments are necessary to provide equitable opportunities for students to access age-equivalent content in the Australian Curriculum: Technologies. Teachers can draw from content at different levels along the Foundation to Year 10 sequence. Teachers can also use the extended general capabilities learning continua in Literacy, Numeracy and Personal and social capability to adjust the focus of learning according to individual student need.

6.2. English as an additional language or dialect

6.2.1. Students for whom English is an additional language or dialect (EAL/D) enter Australian schools at different ages and at different stages of English language learning and have various educational backgrounds in their first languages. While many EAL/D students bring already highly developed literacy (and numeracy) skills in their own language to their learning of Standard Australian English, there are a significant number of students who are not literate in their first language, and have had little or no formal schooling. While the aims of the Australian Curriculum: Technologies are the same for all students, EAL/D students must achieve these aims while simultaneously learning a new language and learning content and skills through that new language. These students may require additional time and support, along with teaching that explicitly addresses their language needs. Students who have had no formal schooling will need additional time and support in order to acquire skills for effective learning in formal settings. A national English as an Additional Language or Dialect: Teacher Resource has been developed to support teachers in making the Australian Curriculum: Foundation to Year 10 in each learning area accessible to EAL/D students.

6.3. Gifted and talented students

6.3.1. Teachers can use the Australian Curriculum: Technologies flexibly to meet the individual learning needs of gifted and talented students. Teachers can enrich student learning by providing students with opportunities to work with learning area content in more depth or breadth; emphasising specific aspects of the general capabilities learning continua (for example, the higher-order cognitive skills of the Critical and creative thinking capability); and/or focusing on cross-curriculum priorities. Teachers can also accelerate student learning by drawing on content from later band levels in the Australian Curriculum: Technologies and/or from local state and territory teaching and learning materials.

7. Achievement Standards

7.1. F-2

7.1.1. By the end of Year 2, students describe the purpose of familiar products, services and environments and how they meet the needs of users and affect others and environments. They identify the features and uses of some technologies for each of the prescribed technologies contexts. With guidance students create designed solutions for each of the prescribed technologies contexts. They describe given needs or opportunities. Students create and evaluate their ideas and designed solutions based on personal preferences. They communicate design ideas for their designed products, services and environments using modelling and simple drawings. Following sequenced steps students demonstrate safe use of tools and equipment when producing designed solutions.

7.2. 3-4

7.2.1. By the end of Year 4 students explain how products, services and environments are designed to best meet needs of communities and their environments. They describe contributions of people in design and technologies occupations. Students describe how the features of technologies can be used to produce designed solutions for each of the prescribed technologies contexts. Students create designed solutions for each of the prescribed technologies contexts. They explain needs or opportunities and evaluate ideas and designed solutions against identified criteria for success, including environmental sustainability considerations. They develop and expand design ideas and communicate these using models and drawings including annotations and symbols. Students plan and sequence major steps in design and production. They identify appropriate technologies and techniques and demonstrate safe work practices when producing designed solutions.

7.3. 5-6

7.3.1. By the end of Year 6 students describe some competing considerations in the design of products, services and environments taking into account sustainability. They describe how design and technologies contribute to meeting present and future needs. Students explain how the features of technologies impact on designed solutions for each of the prescribed technologies contexts. Students create designed solutions for each of the prescribed technologies contexts suitable for identified needs or opportunities. They suggest criteria for success, including sustainability considerations and use these to evaluate their ideas and designed solutions. They combine design ideas and communicate these to audiences using graphical representation techniques and technical terms. Students record project plans including production processes. They select and use appropriate technologies and techniques correctly and safely to produce designed solutions.

8. Key ideas

8.1. Systems thinking and the overarching idea: Creating preferred futures

8.1.1. The Technologies curriculum focuses on systems thinking to develop the technologies knowledge, understanding and skills to provide a method for identifying and moving towards ethical, socially responsible and sustainable patterns of living. Systems thinking is a holistic approach where parts of a system are analysed individually to see the whole, the interactions and interrelationships between the parts and how these parts or components influence the system as a whole. In both Design and Technologies and Digital Technologies this provides opportunities for students to engage in predicting outcomes and impacts of technological decisions for current and future generations and their environments. Students creatively and actively design solutions to meet present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Both subjects acknowledge the strong connection with the Australian Curriculum: Sustainability cross-curriculum priority.

8.2. Project management

8.2.1. The Technologies curriculum ensures that students are explicitly taught how to manage projects. This includes planning; evaluating processes; considering constraints; risk assessment and management; decision-making strategies; quality control; developing resource, finance, work and time plans; and collaborating and communicating with others at different stages of the process. Every technologies project involves the use of resources and it is critical that there is planning for sustainable use of resources when managing projects. Technologies projects involve ethical, health and safety considerations. They are designed for the different needs (including consideration of personal and social beliefs and values) of consumers and clients, and for commercial realities. Students learn that when they and others engage in design thinking and technologies processes, they are responsible and accountable for their designs and solutions. Project management is an essential element in building students’ capacity to successfully innovate in both Technologies subjects. Project work and project management occur as a part of everyday life and are critical to many fields of technologies employment. Technologies education allows students to develop skills to manage projects from identification of need or opportunity through conception to realisation. Project management is addressed in all years of schooling as individuals and groups of students plan how they will work to bring a design idea to fruition. Assessing and managing risk in Technologies learning addresses the safe use of technologies and the risks that can impact on project timelines. It covers all necessary aspects of health, safety and injury prevention at any year level and in any technologies context when using potentially dangerous materials, tools and equipment. It includes ergonomics, safety including cyber safety, data security, and ethical and legal considerations when communicating and collaborating online.

9. Links to other Learning Areas

9.1. English

9.1.1. In schools across Australia there is strong support for linking learning in Technologies with learning literacy skills. Learning in Technologies places a high priority on accurate and unambiguous communication. The Australian Curriculum: Technologies is supported by and in turn reinforces the learning of literacy skills. Students need to describe objects and events; interpret descriptions; read and give instructions; generate and explore ideas with others; write design briefs and specifications, marketing texts, evaluation and variation reports; and participate in group discussions.

9.2. Mathematics

9.2.1. The Technologies curriculum provides contexts within which Mathematics knowledge, understanding and skills may be applied and developed. In Technologies, students process data using simple tables, lists, picture graphs, simple column graphs and line graphs. In Mathematics, students' data analysis skills will develop to include scatter plots, linear graphs and the gradient of graphs. This will enhance their ability to analyse patterns and trends in data as part of technologies investigations. Students develop their use of metric units in both the Mathematics and Technologies curriculums. The ability to convert between common metric units of length and mass and their use of decimal notation in Mathematics will enable them to represent and compare data in meaningful ways in Technologies. Technologies provide tools for automating mathematical processes which reinforce Mathematics concepts. In Mathematics, students learn statistical methods that may be applied to the quantitative analysis of data required in Technologies. Students apply knowledge of geometry, shapes and angles in Technologies. When considering systems at a vast range of scales in Technologies, students use their mathematical knowledge of timescales and intervals. Students’ mathematical ability to solve problems involving linear equations can be used in Technologies when investigating quantitative relationships and designing algorithms. The development of computational thinking skills in Digital Technologies will complement the problem-solving and reasoning proficiency strands in Mathematics.

9.3. Science

9.3.1. The Technologies curriculum closely complements the Science curriculum. Design and Technologies draws upon concepts from biological, chemical and physical sciences to solve problems and design solutions to meet human needs and opportunities. Links with the Science curriculum allow for applications of scientific concepts through designing real-world solutions that are meaningful to students. An example would be applying scientific concepts when designing in an engineering context. Students apply knowledge of material properties and characteristics and do appropriate scientific tests of materials, processes and prototypes. Design and Technologies contextualises learning in Science through Draft Australian Curriculum: Technologies – February 2013 19 engagement with authentic projects. It allows for critiquing, applying prior knowledge and evaluating outcomes. The Digital Technologies curriculum provides many techniques and technologies for automating the collection, storage and analysis of authentic scientific data in the Science curriculum. Digital technologies such as data loggers, spreadsheets, databases, simulations and imaging technologies are central to modern science. They are used to collect and organise scientific measurements and to derive information by filtering, analysing and visualising large volumes of numerical, categorical and structured data. Digital Technologies provides students with the skills to represent data in ways that enable computational analysis. Scientists use digital technologies to develop software for simulating and modelling natural systems and phenomena. Digital technologies give students the skills to implement simple simulations and gain a deeper understanding of Science concepts and models by interacting with simulations.

9.4. History

9.4.1. History provides another avenue to understand how technologies develop and how their developments are a source of historical facts and artefacts. In the Knowledge and understanding strands students will develop increasingly sophisticated knowledge and understanding, drawn from contemporary and historical sources. It is important that students learn that technologies have developed through the gradual accumulation of knowledge over many centuries; that all sorts of people – including people like themselves – use and contribute to the development of technologies. Historical studies of technologies in a range of societies including the peoples and countries of Asia and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures extending to modern times will help students understand the contributions of people from around the world.

9.5. Geography

9.5.1. The Geography curriculum provides a range of opportunities for students to consolidate their Technologies knowledge, understanding and skills. From the early years students sort information, find patterns and interact with digital systems as they develop spatial understandings, particularly as they create, interpret and use maps. They use directional language; understand scale and distance; and record data related to weather. They create products and systems that measure and further develop their understanding of the influences of climate and weather conditions. They use digital tools to collect and sort information and data and there is a significant emphasis on digital and spatial technologies. Students strengthen their Technologies understanding and skills as they study the environmental characteristics of places, processes and human significance. During their investigations they collect and convert data into useful forms using spreadsheets, graphs and distribution maps. Students consolidate their understandings of sustainability as they investigate human significance of the biophysical environment and design and manage projects that enhance their understanding of the fine balance between the environment and human endeavour. Through Design and Technologies, concepts and learning that are addressed in Geography are contextualised through the design and production of products, services and environments through specific targeted projects that relate to sustainability, the environment and society. They critique, design and produce solutions for managed and constructed Draft Australian Curriculum: Technologies – February 2013 20 environments. Learning is further enhanced through authentic activities that focus on enterprising and innovative solutions to perceived needs.

9.6. The Arts

9.6.1. The Technologies curriculum complements The Arts curriculum, particularly in the application of the elements and principles of design in Visual Arts and in the use of digital technologies in Media Arts. Through the Technologies curriculum aspects of aesthetics such as line, shape, form, colour, texture, proportion and balance are incorporated into the design processes in Technologies learning activities. This occurs when students design products and environments. Knowledge of materials, tools and equipment and the ways they can be used to create designed solutions provides links between Technologies and two and threedimensional design in Visual Arts. Skills developed in Visual Arts such as representing and exploring creative ideas through sketching and drawing complement processes used in Design and Technologies to generate ideas to create solutions. Students learn about multimedia across the Australian Curriculum. In Digital Technologies the focus is on the technical aspects of multimedia, and privacy and intellectual property concerns. In Media Arts students use digital technologies to tell stories, represent and communicate ideas and explore concepts. Making in Media Arts involves designing, planning, producing, capturing and recording, choosing, combining and editing, and representing and distributing.

9.7. Health and PE

9.7.1. The Australian Curriculum: Technologies will take account of what students will learn in Health and Physical Education. Students will explore how systems work together to produce energy and movement and be able to apply this in technologies contexts. They will develop and practise technical skills which will assist students in developing manipulative skills in Technologies and apply learning particularly in relation to nutrition. Food and nutrition in the Australian Curriculum In the Australian Curriculum students may be taught about food and nutrition in both Health and Physical Education and in the Technologies learning area through Design and Technologies. The focus in the Health and Physical Education curriculum is on understanding healthy choices in relation to nutrition, understanding the range of influences on these choices, and developing and applying the knowledge, understanding and skills to make healthier choices in relation to food and nutrition. In Technologies students will learn how to apply nutrition knowledge through the preparation of food. Beyond Year 8 students may choose to study a food-related subject offered by states and territories.