My Foundation of Education

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My Foundation of Education by Mind Map: My Foundation of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Liberal

1.1.1. Association of American Colleges and Education Supporter of a more liberal education

1.1.2. Higher Education Act

1.1.3. University of Chicago professor Martha Nussbaum is a strong supporter of a liberal education

1.1.4. A liberal arts education gives students from all backgrounds to study an extended pursuit of knowledge.

1.1.5. Although I am a liberal, I also believe in traditionalism. Traditions began our country so forgetting those traditions would hinder society from knowing our past.

1.1.6. An important aspect of traditionalism is the focus on individual students' needs and self-expression.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. No Child Left Behind Act (2002) Aimed at eliminating student achievement gaps by 2014.

2.2. Thomas Jefferson, (1779) "Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge" Would provide free education to ALL children for the first three years of elementary school.

2.3. G. Stanley Hall "Darwin of the Mind" believed that schools should tailor their curriculums to the stages of child development.

2.4. Main goals of secondary education: Health, Command of fundamental processes, Worthy home-membership, Vocation, Citizenship, Worthy use of leisure, Ethical character

2.5. Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968)

2.6. Co-Education Movement (1969) All-male Ivy League Universities (Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Columbia, Brown, Pennsylvania, and Dartmouth) began to admit women.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Schools as well as other organizations shape children's perceptions of the world by process of socialization. This means that the values, beliefs, and norms of society are internalized into the children so they come to think ad act like other members of society.

3.2. Schools, wittingly and unwittingly, promote gender definitions and stereotypes when they segregate learning and extracurricular activities by gender, or when teachers allow boys to dominate class discussions and activities.

3.3. The functional theory deals with how well the parts of schools (teachers, students, administration) all work with each other.

3.4. Karl Marx believed that the class system, which separated owners from workers and workers from the benefits of their own labor, made class struggle inevitable.

3.5. The conflict theory is one that can be backed up very easily. The conflict theory is based on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will and beliefs on subordinate groups through force, cooptation, and manipulation.

3.6. Macrosociological theories hardly provide a interpretable snapshot of what schools are like on an everyday basis.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. All teachers regardless of their action orientation, have a personal philosophy of life that colors the way in which they select knowledge; order their classrooms; interact with students, peers, parents, and administrators; and select values to emphasize within their classrooms. Engaging in the philosophy of education helps teachers clarify what they do or intend to do and, as they act or propose to act, to justify or explain why they do what they do.

4.2. Plato (427-347 B.C.) thought that education, in particular, was important as a means of moving individuals collectively toward achieved the good. He believed that the state should play an active role in education and that it should encourage the brighter students to follow a curriculum that was more abstract and more concerned with ideas rather than with concrete matter.

4.3. Idealists subscribe to the notion that education is transformation: Ideas can change lives!

4.4. In an idealists classroom, the teacher plays an active role i discussion, posing questions, selecting materials, and establishing an environment, all of which ensure the teacher's desired outcome.

4.5. Realists believe that the material world holds the key to the ideal world; therefore, realists would encourage questions that would help students in the classroom grasp the ideal through specific characteristics of particular manifestations.

4.6. Curriculum for realists would consist of the basics: science and math, reading and writing, and the humanities. Realists believe that there is a body of knowledge that is essential for the student to master in order to be part of society.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Education in the United States is one of the nations largest businesses.

5.2. Creating the conditions where teachers can use and improve their craft should be a major objective of those who believe that education is a cornerstone for a better society.

5.3. It is estimated that more than 55 million youngsters are enrolled in kindergarten through the 12th grade and that the cost of educating these children is over $650 billion annually.

5.4. Students who attend schools in wealthy school districts are more likely to have more curriculum options, better teachers, and more extracurricular activities than are students who attend relatively poor school districts.

5.5. According to Waller, schools are separate social organizations because: (a) They have a definite population. (b) They have a clearly defined political structure. (c) They represent the nexus of a compact network of social relationships. (d) They are pervaded by a "WE" feeling. (e) They have a culture that is definitely their own.

5.6. Sociologist Max Weber suggested that bureaucracies are an attempt to rationalize and organize human behavior in order to achieve certain goals.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Kliebard, in his book, “The Struggle for the American Curriculum” outlines four different types of curriculum in the 20th century: humanist, social efficiency, developmentalist, and social meliorist; each of which had a different view of the goals of schooling.

6.2. The developmentalist curriculum is related to the needs and interests of the student rather than the needs of society. The social melionist curriculum was concerned with the role of the schools in reforming society.

6.3. The transmission of knowledge is never objective or value neutral. Rather it represents what particular interest groups believe students should know.

6.4. Neo-Marxists, such as Bowles and Gintis, believe that the hidden curriculum of the school teaches the character traits, behaviors, and attitudes needed in the capitalist economy.

6.5. The mimetic tradition is based on the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students. The transformative tradition rests on a different set of assumptions about the teaching and learning process.

7. Education Inequality

7.1. * Functionalists believe that the role of schools is to provide a fair and meritocratic selection process for sorting out the best and brightest individuals, regardless of family background. The functionalist vision of a just society is one where individual talent and hard work based on universal principles of evaluation are more important than ascriptive characteristics based on particularistic methods of evaluation. * Conflict theorists believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce rather than eliminate inequality, the fact that educational outcomes are to a large degree based on family background is fully consistent with this perspective. Nonetheless, conflict theorists are also concerned with inequality and its eradication.

7.2. The effective school literature, as it is termed, suggests that there are characteristics of unusually effective schools that help to explain why their students achieve academically. These characteristics include the following: * A climate of high expectations for students by teachers and administrators * Strong and effective leadership by a principal or school head * Accountability processes for students and teachers * The monitoring of student learning * A high degree of instructional time on task, where teachers spend a great deal of their time teaching and students spend a great deal of their time learning * Flexibility for teachers and administrators to experiment and adapt to new situations and problems

7.3. The argument that unequal educational performance by working class and non-white students is due to genetic differences in intelligence was offered by psychologist Arthur Jensen in a highly controversial article in the Harvard Educational Review. Jensen indicated that compensatory programs were doomed to failure because they were aimed at changing social and environmental factors, when the root of the problem was biological. Jensen, based on sophisticated statistical analyses, argued that African Americans, genetically, are less intelligent than whites and therefore do less well in school, where intelligence is an important component of educational success. Given these data and his conclusions, Jensen was pessimistic about the likelihood that the academic performance of African Americans could be substantially improved.

7.4. The cultural deprivation theory, popularized in the 1960’s, suggests that working class and non-white families often lack the cultural resources, such as books and other educational stimuli, and thus arrive at school at a significant disadvantage.

7.5. Researchers such as anthropologist John Ogbu argue that African American children do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class and caste structure. Ogbu argued that there is a “job ceiling” for African Americans in the United States, as there is for similar caste-like minorities in other countries, and that African American families and schools socialize their children to deal with their inferior life chances rather than encourage them to internalize those values and skills necessary for positions that will not be open to them. Although this is a complex, and at times a hidden, process, the results are lower educational attainment and performance.

7.6. The problem with cultural difference theory, according to Hurn, is that it is too culturally relativistic. That is, in its insistence that all cultures are equally valid, and that all values and norms are acceptable in the context of the culture that generated them, cultural difference theorists too often deny cultural problems and dysfunction. Although it is fair to acknowledge that cultural deprivation theorists are often ethnocentric and biased, and that the culture of schooling often alienates students from working class and nonwhite families, it is apparent that cultural patterns may negatively affect school performance. That these patterns are often caused by social and economic forces does not eliminate them, nor reduce their negative impact on academic achievement.

8. Equality of Opportunity

8.1. Sociologist Daniel Rossides defined social stratification as follows: Social stratification is a hierarchical configuration of families (and in industrial societies in recent decades, unrelated individuals) who have differential access to whatever is of value in the society at a given point and over time, primarily because of social, not bio-psychological, variables.

8.2. 3 forms of social stratification • Caste stratification-occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of some strict ascriptive criteria such as race and/or religious worth. • Estate stratification-occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of family worth. • Class stratification-occurs in industrial societies that define social level in terms of a hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals especially in economic pursuits.

8.3. According to Phillips, “America’s top 420,000 households alone accounted for 26.9 percent of US family net worth-in essence, 26.9 percent of the nation’s wealth. The top 10 percent of households, meanwhile, controlled approximately 68 percent.”

8.4. It should be added that more women are now attending post-secondary institutions than men, although it is true that many of the post-secondary institutions that women attend are less academically and socially prestigious than those post-secondary institutions attended by men.

8.5. In the last twenty years, gender differences between men and women, in terms of educational attainment, have been reduced. Recent data from the US, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia indicate than not only have girls caught up to boys in almost all measures of academic achievement, policy makers are now discovering the “boy problem”.

8.6. In 2009, a man age 25 or over with a college degree earned $72,868 a year on average, whereas a woman with the same educational qualifications earned $44,078 a year.