The Making of Modern Europe

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The Making of Modern Europe by Mind Map: The Making of Modern Europe

1. Revolution

1.1. French Revolution

1.1.1. Main Events Feudalism and Unfair Taxation The Estates-General The Storming of Bastille The National Assembly The Reign of Terror The Directory Napoleon Bonepart

1.1.2. Key People Jacques-Pierre Loui XVI Marie-Antoinette Maximilian de Robespierre Napoleon Bonepart Georges Danton

1.2. Russian Revolution

1.2.1. Main Events The February Revolution The October Revolution Use of Russian Calender

1.2.2. Key People Alexander I Alexander II Alexander III Lev Rosenfeld Vladimir Lenin Nicholas I Nicholas II Joseph Stalin

2. Industrial Revolution

2.1. Economic Changes

2.1.1. From home and small workshops to Factories

2.1.2. Proportion of capital investment per worker grew

2.1.3. New groups of investors, Business people and managers took more of a financial risk to produce goods efficently

2.2. Social Changes

2.2.1. Factory owner's tendency to regard laborers as commodities

2.2.2. Men, women and children worked in textile mills, pottery and mines.

2.2.3. Women and children had the lowest rates of pay

2.2.4. Brought waves of immigration to cities on Eastern Seaboard of North America

2.3. Multiplier Effect

2.3.1. Consumer demand for goods lead to more investment and innovations

2.3.2. Entrepreneurs to invest in machines to speed up production and increase profit

2.4. Consumer Demand

2.4.1. Rising of the new "Middle Class"

2.5. Life in the City

2.5.1. Crowded, dirty, unregualted

2.5.2. Population grew very rapidly

2.5.3. Outbreaks of disease

2.6. Social Structure

2.6.1. Gap between wealthy and working class

2.6.2. Industrial and urban development made society more diverse and less unified

2.7. "Laissez Faire"

2.7.1. Would optimize economic growth (Free Market)

2.7.2. Very Pessimistic view of the possibilities for improvement in the living standards of the poor

2.8. Political Changes

2.8.1. Introduction of liberalism

2.8.2. Social welfare policies

3. Unifications

3.1. Italy

3.1.1. Congress of Vienna How to re-draw the boarders of Europe Congress restored pre-Napoleonic boarders of Italy Independent Governments Northern parts of present day Italy controlled by Austria (Venice)

3.1.2. Early Revolution Revolt against Austrians Movement in Piedmont

3.1.3. Key People Giuseppe Garbaldi Victor Emmanuel

3.1.4. Main Events First Italian Independence War Kingdom of Sicily and Sardinia joined war efforts Trying to remove Austrian rule Goal was to drive out the Austrian Empire Second Italian Independence War War between the Kingdom of Sardinia, the second French Empire and the Austrian Empire Sardinia and the French signed a secret alliance against Austria Kingdom of Italy North and South Italy became unified Third Italian Independence War Italy joins forces with Prussia against Austria They won back over Venice Unification of Italy Italian troops occupy Rome 1871, Rome becomes capital of unified Italy Victor Emmanuel II becomes first king of unified Italy

3.2. Germany

3.2.1. Main Events Vienna Settlement Zollverein The Berline Riots Prussian Union plan Prussia and Austria vs Denmark fought for control of Duchies The treaty of Vienna The seven weeks war Luxembourg Affair Franco-Prussian war German Empire established Peace of Frankfurt treaty The Resignation Otto Von Bishmark Then the death of Bishmark Germany adopts constitution Unified Germany

3.2.2. Key People Otto Von Bishmark King Wilhelm I

4. The Scramble of Africa

4.1. What is it?

4.1.1. The invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territories

4.1.2. Approx 90% of Africa under European rule

4.2. New Imperialism

4.2.1. Colonial Expansion

4.2.2. European powers

4.2.3. Empire of Japan

4.3. Resources in Africa

4.3.1. High demand for goods not available in Europe

4.3.2. Cotton, copper, rubber, tea, tin, diamonds

4.4. Rivalry

4.4.1. Colonies seen as assets

4.4.2. Ports- good for exchanging during times of international bargaining

4.4.3. Colonies boosted military presence

4.5. The Partition

4.5.1. French west Africa

4.5.2. Coastal colonies

4.5.3. Ports

4.5.4. Not French citizens

4.5.5. Britain occupied most of the southern portions of Africa

5. Napoleon Bonepart

5.1. Who was he?

5.1.1. French military leader

5.1.2. Emperor of France from 1804-1815

5.1.3. Rose to power during the latter stages of the French Revolution

5.1.4. He tried to copy Augustus Caesar

5.2. The Art of War

5.2.1. Napoleon created his own art of war Never had a set plan Never used the same tactic twice Rapid and audacious attacks

5.2.2. Napoleon was all about confusing his enemies

5.3. The Wars

5.3.1. Appointed commander at Toulon

5.3.2. Counter Revolution

5.3.3. Commander of small army Defeat four armies in Austria Got hero status

5.3.4. He invaded Egypt from the Ottomans

5.4. Concordat of 1801

5.4.1. An agreement between Napoleon and Pope Plus VII

5.4.2. Brought back most of the power of the church

5.5. Napoleonic Code

5.5.1. Established in 1804

5.5.2. Napoleonic Code divided law into; law of persons, property, acquisition of property, and civil procedure

5.5.3. Adopted by countries occupied by France during the Napoleonic Wars

5.6. Napoleonic Empire

5.6.1. 1804-1812 was a military success

5.6.2. Annexed parts of Germany and Italy as well as Belgium and the Netherlands

5.6.3. Replaced Holy Roman Empire which French controlled Federation of the Rhine

5.6.4. Cut off half of Prussia to form Grand Duchy of Warsaw

6. Causes of WWI

6.1. Alliance System (1st Cause)

6.1.1. Triple Entente Russia joined Britain and France to make the Triple Entente

6.1.2. Triple Alliance Bishmark allied with Italy and Austria

6.2. Militarism and Arms Race (2nd Cause)

6.3. Economic and Imperial Rivalries (3rd Cause)

6.4. Aggressive Nationalism (4th Cause)

6.5. Famous Wars

6.5.1. Multi-Front War

6.5.2. Western Front War

6.6. Trench Warfare

6.6.1. Protection, no more "land warfare"

6.6.2. Only use of actually moving somewhere (safer travel)

6.7. Alliance and the First World War

6.7.1. Germany is the new power, Italy is unified but don't have much power

6.7.2. France and Germany hate eachother

6.7.3. Germany's problem was that they were stuck in the middle of Europe

6.7.4. Bishmark solved this problem by being friends with Russia and Austria

6.8. Franco-Russian War

6.8.1. Instead, Russia made an alliance with France

6.8.2. Germany's worst nightmare

6.9. Key Figures

6.9.1. Nicholas II

6.9.2. George V

6.9.3. Victor Emmanual