14 Categories of Disabilities as Identified by IDEA

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14 Categories of Disabilities as Identified by IDEA by Mind Map: 14 Categories of Disabilities as Identified by IDEA

1. Autism

1.1. Means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engaging in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term autism does not apply if the child’s educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has an emotional disturbance, as defined in #5 below. A child who shows the characteristics of autism after age 3 could be diagnosed as having autism if the criteria above are satisfied. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/#asd

1.1.1. Intervention/modifications and assistive technology: Seating and Positioning

1.1.2. These types of AT may allow the student greater access to the educational activities.

1.1.3. Assistive Listening

1.1.4. Assists the student in gaining auditorily presented educational information. http://www.monarchcenterforautism.org/assistive-technology/types

2. Deaf-Blindness

2.1. Means concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/#db

2.1.1. Intervention/modifications and assistive technology: Adapted Schedules

2.1.2. Adaptive schedules are an important organizational tool. They provide a tangible way to present what will be happening during the day. As soon as your classroom schedule is in place, you can create individualized schedules for each student using the appropriate medium and format. http://www.perkinselearning.org/strategies/classroom-organization-management

3. Deafness

3.1. Means a hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/#deafness

3.1.1. Intervention/modifications and assistive technology: Hearing loop (or induction loop)systems use electromagnetic energy to transmit sound. A hearing loop system involves four parts:

3.1.2. A thin loop of wire that encircles a room or branches out beneath carpeting, A sound source, such as a public address system, microphone, or home TV or telephone An amplifier and A receiver worn in the ears or as a headset http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/pages/assistive-devices.aspx#2

4. Developmental Delay

4.1. Children from birth to age three (under IDEA Part C) and children from ages three through nine (under IDEA Part B), the term developmental delay, as defined by each State, means a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/#dd

4.1.1. Intervention/modifications and assistive technology: Low/No Tech Solutions:

4.1.2. Create slant boards/book stabilizers by gluing low pile carpet to a large 3 ring binder, and use Velcro to anchor books to the carpeted surface. Adapt commercially available lap trays to use as supports for positioning books. Easel, rain gutter or chalkboard tray used as a book support. Recycled materials like sheet packing foam, chip clips, large paper clips, sticky back foam, hot glue dots or soft Velcro can be attached to book page corners to “fluff” pages apart for easier turning. (See Page Fluffing 101)

4.1.3. High Tech Solutions:

4.1.4. Create simple single switch or mouse click access stories using Microsoft PowerPoint. Create your own books using My Own BookShelf which is an authoring program that allows you to create books, and categorize them into bookshelves. Children can pick their books from the bookshelf and read using a variety of access devices. There are many free books available to play and view on line. http://atclassroom.blogspot.com/2011/09/assistive-technology-and-early-start.html

5. Emotional Disturbance

5.1. Means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/#ed

5.1.1. Intervention/modifications and assistive technology: Modifying the learning environment

5.1.2. Testing accommodations for students with bi-polar disorder: The suggestions or ideas that follow assume that the student can be maintained in the mainstream building. In actuality, some students with severe symptoms may require home instruction, hospitalization, a self-contained program, day treatment, or residential setting. That said, and while many students with Bipolar Disorder may need special education, some student. Accommodations for persons with anxiety and emotional disorders : A person managing an online program, either a virtual volunteering program or one that provides online service delivery for an agency, needs to have a general understanding of various learning styles, working styles and information-processing styles. Volunteer management is not "one-size-fits-all," and simple adjustments in management style can be made to effectively channel talents and resources of the greatest number of people. IEP's and 504 Plans: Similarities and differences. https://www.naset.org/emotionaldisturbance2.0.html#c9045

6. Hearing Impairment

6.1. Means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of “deafness.” http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/#hearing

6.1.1. Intervention/modifications and assistive technology: FM systems

6.1.2. It's a a wireless transmitter used to broadcast a signal throughout a given area. The size of the broadcast area is determined by the power of the transmitte with an auditorium typically being the maximum practical size. The teacher wears a transmitter and the student wears a receiver. Nowadays the receiver is very small and may be integrated into the child’s hearing device. The signal from the receiver is fed into an earphone or the student’s own hearing aid. http://www.californiaearinstitute.com/hearing-device-center-listening-device-classroom-bay-area.php

7. Intellectual Disability

7.1. Means significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/#id

7.1.1. Intervention/modifications and assistive technology: In The Classroom

7.1.2. To do class work and homework, some students need devices that provide access to computers or environmental controls. Examples of access technology are special switches, modified keyboards, head pointers, and key guards. Independent use of equipment in the classroom is a possibility for students with physical disabilities through environmental controls such as remote controls and special adaptations of on/off switches to make them accessible. Students who are nonverbal, dysfluent or who have articulation problems may benefit from using a wide variety of communication devices. http://www.sc.edu/scatp/cdrom/atused.html

8. Multiple Disabilities

8.1. Means concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/#multiple

8.1.1. Intervention/modifications and assistive technology: Assistive technology is necessary as a supplementary aid if its presence (along with other necessary aids) supports the student sufficiently to maintain the placement, and its absence requires the student’s removal to a more restrictive setting. For example—If a student with multiple physical disabilities can make independent, educational progress on his or her IEP goals in the regular classroom with the use of a computer and an augmentative communication device and cannot make such progress in that setting without the devices, then those devices are necessary supplementary aides.

8.1.2. Assistive technology needs for each student will vary. The criteria will also be unique to each student, depending on the desired goal. The goal for each student should include: __ Increased independence, __ Task mastery, __ Rate at which a task is accomplished, __ Stamina to accomplish task(s), __ Accuracy, __ Attentiveness, __ Increased interactions, __ Other child-specific criteria,

8.1.3. As with any IEP considerations, goals related to assistive technology depend on the individual needs of the child and must be determined on a case-by-case basis. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/considering-at/

9. Orthopedic Impairment

9.1. Means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that— (a) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and (b) adversely affects a child’s educational performance. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/#ortho

9.1.1. Intervention/modifications and assistive technology: Student with orthopedic disabilities to access a generalized curriculum, an educator might be required to meet the following accommodations:

9.1.2. Seating arrangements to develop useful posture and movements, Instruction that is focused on development of gross and fine motor skills, Ensuring suitable augmentative communication and other assistive devices, Adequate awareness of the student’s medical condition and its affect on the student,

9.1.3. Due to the unique nature of orthopedic impairments, additional specialists might need to become involved in the development and implementation of appropriate educational programming for the student. http://www.disabled-world.com/disability/children/orthopedic-impairments.php

10. Other Health Impairment

10.1. Means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that: (a) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and (b) adversely affects a child’s educational performance. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/#ohi

10.1.1. Intervention/modifications and assistive technology: Beyond special education services are accommodations and modifications. Generally, these refer to adaptations designed to allow students access to the general education curriculum. These can be as mild as allowing extra time on certain tasks and as significant as the use of higher level assistive technology. Some modifications or adaptations in the regular education classroom that are often used with ADHD students are:

10.1.2. Behavior Plans: Students with ADHD have difficulty with a variety of classroom tasks due to symptoms of their disorder like inattention and disorganization. Behavior plans that reinforce more appropriate behavior in school may be an integral piece to their IEP's.

10.1.3. Extra time on tasks: Students with ADHD lose their attention; hence, it sometimes makes extra time on tasks necessary. Keep in mind, however, that students with ADHD are also often impulsive. So sometimes the problem isn't that they don't have enough time to finish; the issue may be that they impulsively fly through things and finish too quickly. http://www.specialeducationbehaviormodification.com/articles/other_health_impairment.html

11. Specific Learning Disability

11.1. Means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; of intellectual disability; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/#ld

11.1.1. Intervention/modifications and assistive technology: Once a child has been formally identified with a learning disability, the child or parent may request accommodations for that child's specific needs. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act states that a child's Individualized Education Program (IEP) team which both parent and child are a part of must decide which accommodations are appropriate for him or her. Any appropriate accommodations should be written into a student's IEP. The possible accommodations for an IEP team to consider, broken into six categories: Presentation, Response, Setting, Timing, Test Scheduling, and Other. http://www.ncld.org/students-disabilities/accommodations-education/accommodations-students-learning-disabilities

12. Speech or Language Impairment

12.1. Means a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/#speech

12.1.1. Intervention/modifications and assistive technology: In the Classroom Provide peer or adult assistance with unfamiliar words and concepts

12.1.2. Provide the student with a talking hand held dictionary or spelling aid to assist in identifying unknown words, Summarize information in language appropriate to the student’s and linguistic capabilities http://atto.buffalo.edu/registered/DecisionMaking/resourceroom-docs/GPATparticipation.pdf

13. Traumatic Brain Injury

13.1. Means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/#tbi

13.1.1. Intervention/modifications and assistive technology: In the Classroom: Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the student’s area of difficulty. For students with brain injury (as well as other students), effective assistive technology tends to have the following characteristics:

13.1.2. It has meaning to the student using it, It is minimally intrusive. It is not overly cumbersome or unwieldy and does not intrude too much on the student's life, e.g., does not prevent the student from interacting with others, Effective assistive technology provides assistance without unnecessary control on the student's day-to-day activities, It requires skills the student has. The student is not overwhelmed by the device or strategy and has the background to use it easily,

13.1.3. The most effective assistive technology is universally accessible or at least accessible to a majority of other people, The assistive technology doesn't make the individuals using it feel different or that they stand out when using it, Assistive technology is most successful when it looks normal or stylish to the student, The assistive technology has built in prompting, which can decrease over time as the student's independence increases and The assistive technology is supported by the environment; people around the student understand how to use the technology and can help the student when needed. http://cbirt.org/tbi-education/assistive-technology/assistive-technology-students-tbi/#effective http://atto.buffalo.edu/registered/DecisionMaking/resourceroom-docs/GPATparticipation.pdf

14. Visual Impairment, including Bindness

14.1. Means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/#visual

14.1.1. Intervention/modifications and assistive technology: In the Classroom Position the computer monitor to maximize visual access and reduce glare, Adjust the contrast on the monitor to maximize visual access, Use accessibility features within the computer’s software operating system to enlarge text and graphics

14.1.2. Use a screen enlargement software application such as ZoomText to enlarge text and graphics displayed on the computer monitor, Provide a peer to assist in reading text displayed on the computer screen, Provide a text reader such as Willow Talk to read aloud text displayed on the monitor from software applications and web sites, Provide a screen-text reading software application such as JAWS (Henter Joyce) to read all text displayed on the monitor, Provide an appropriate means for recording-printing information and facts obtained from the resources (Braille embosser) http://atto.buffalo.edu/registered/DecisionMaking/resourceroom-docs/GPATparticipation.pdf