Disabilities

Mind map of Remediation Process

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Disabilities by Mind Map: Disabilities

1. -Know the needs, play to the strengths -Be familiar with the student’s IEP -Make modifications. -Let the IEP team know what program supports or modifications you need -Allow partial participation, as necessary. -Consider assistive technology (AT). AT is appropriate, even essential -Does the student need textbooks in another format? I -Practice and reinforce. -Support related services in the classroom.- Speech Therapy, -Occupational therapy -Address behavior issues. -A paraprofessional in your classroom to support the student -Encourage the student’s independence. -When the time comes, support transition planning

2. Give directions one step at a time. Give the student more time to finish schoolwork and tests. Show the student how to perform new tasks Have consistent routines. Check to make sure that the student has actually learned the new skill. Show the student how to use an assignment book and a daily schedule Realize that the student may get tired quickly Keep in touch with the student’s parents. Share information Be flexible about expectations. Be patient.

3. Accommodations in school

4. A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain caused by the head being hit by something or shaken violently. (The exact definition of TBI, according to special education law, is given below.) This injury can change how the person acts, moves, and thinks. A traumatic brain injury can also change how a student learns and acts in school. The term TBI is used for head injuries that can cause changes in one or more areas, such as:

5. DEFINITION :Hearing impairment is defined by IDEA as “an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.” Deafness is defined as “a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification.” Thus, deafness is viewed as a condition that prevents an individual from receiving sound in all or most of its forms. In contrast, a child with a hearing loss can generally respond to auditory stimuli, including speech.

6. DEFINITION IDEA defines emotional disturbance as follows: “…a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: (A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.” (2) As defined by IDEA, emotional disturbance includes schizophrenia but does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance. (3)

7. Intervention Strategies

7.1. Bipolar Disorder – medication and psychosocial treatment

7.2. Eating Disorder

7.2.1. psychotherapy or counseling, coupled with careful attention to medical and nutritional needs.

7.3. Conduct Disorder

7.3.1. training for parents on how to handle child or adolescent behavior;

7.3.2. family therapy;

7.3.3. training in problem solving skills for children or adolescents; and

7.3.4. community-based services that focus on the young person within the context of family and community influences.

7.4. OCD- Obsessive compulsive disorder

7.4.1. Therapist trained in behavior therapy;

7.4.2. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT);

7.4.3. medication (usually an antidepressant).

7.5. Psychotic Disorders Medication and psycho therapy

7.6. IN SCHOOL-Positive behavioral Support Psychological or Counseling services

8. Autism

8.1. Appropriate Intervention Strategies:

8.2. Intervention begins for early diagnosis – [ birth- to 3 years]

8.3. improving communication,

8.4. social, academic,

8.5. behavioral,

8.6. daily living skills.

8.7. Classroom structured for consistency and predictability

8.8. Information presented visually & verbally

8.9. Interaction with non -disabled peers- for appropriate language, social, behavioural skills

8.9.1. CASE STUDY - Ryan is a two year old boy, but not reaching developmental milestones as his older sibling. He’s speech is repetitive when he hears others speak words,does not use words to communicate,spends a lot of time playing byhimself. Mostly with cars or anything that has wheels, smallest stress or change would trigger a tantrum. He’s not aware of his family that’s around. Ryan is diagnosed with autism, one of the five disorders listed under an umbrella category of “Pervasive Developmental Disorders”—a category that’s often referred to as simply the “autism spectrum.” There’s early intervention that’s begun on diagnosis and it is a long road ahead for Ryan’s parents.

9. A developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.[IDEA]

9.1. Communication problems (for example, with the use or comprehension of language);

9.2. Difficulty relating to people, things, and events;

9.3. Playing with toys and objects in unusual ways;

9.4. Difficulty adjusting to changes in routine or to familiar surroundings; and

9.5. Repetitive body movements or behaviors.

10. Deaf- blindness

10.1. Concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness. [§300.8(c)(2)

10.1.1. Classroom strategies

10.1.2. Assistive Listening Devices (ALDs)—a small microphone device worn by the instructor that increases the volume and clarity of the class lecture for the student who wears the device.

10.1.3. Interpreters—relay information to and from the student and other people in the classroom

10.1.4. Note takers—provide a written, Brailled, or taped secondary source of information during a class lecture

10.1.5. Tutors—an interpreter when accessing tutorial services.

10.1.6. Readers—for students who have usable hearing and limited vision, this support service provider reads textbooks and other course materials.

10.1.7. Classroom environment – does it have adequate lighting, creating a glare?

10.1.8. Give handouts on time so that students can prepare in preferred mode

10.1.9. Large Print/Braille Materials or Taped Textbooks—every required reading and handout may need to be converted into large print, Braille or audiotape

10.1.10. Tests could be oral Vs written

10.1.11. Extended time

11. Deafness

11.1. DEFINITION means a hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance

11.1.1. Hearing loss does not respond consistently to sounds or to his or her own name;

11.1.2. asks for things to be repeated or often says “huh?”

11.1.3. is delayed in developing speech or has unclear speech;

11.1.4. turns the volume up loud on the TV and other electronic devices. (CDC, 2012)-

11.2. ACCOMMODATIONS

11.3. regular speech, language, and auditory training from a specialist;

11.4. amplification systems;

11.5. services of an interpreter for those students who use sign language;

11.6. favorable seating in the class to facilitate lip reading;

11.7. captioned films/videos;

11.8. assistance of a notetaker, who takes notes for the student with a hearing loss, so that the student can fully attend to instruction;

11.9. instruction for the teacher and peers in alternate communication methods, such as sign language; and

11.10. counseling.

12. Developmental delay

12.1. Child with a disability for children aged three through nine (or any subset of that age range, including ages three through five), may…include a child— (1) Who is experiencing developmental delays as defined by the State and as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures in one or more of the following areas: Physical development, cognitive development, communication development, social or emotional development, or adaptive development; and (2) Who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services. [34 CFR §300.8(b)]IDEA

12.2. Developmental Evaluation looks at:

12.3. Physical development (fine motor skills, gross motor skills

12.4. Cognitive development (intellectual abilities)

12.5. Communication development (speech and language)

12.6. Social or emotional development (social skills, emotional control)

12.7. Early Intervention

12.8. Assistive technology (devices a child might need)

12.9. Audiology or hearing devices

12.10. Speech and language services

12.11. Counseling and training for a family

12.12. Medical services

12.13. Nursing services

12.14. Nutrition services

12.15. Occupational therapy

12.16. Physical therapy

12.17. Psychological Services

13. Emotional disturbance

13.1. Characteristics of Emotional Disturbance

13.1.1. Hyperactivity (short attention span, impulsiveness);

13.1.2. Aggression or self-injurious behavior (acting out, fighting);

13.1.3. Withdrawal (not interacting socially with others, excessive fear or anxiety);

13.1.4. Immaturity (inappropriate crying, temper tantrums, poor coping skills); and

13.1.5. Learning difficulties (academically performing below grade level).

14. Hearing impairment

14.1. Hearing impairment is defined by IDEA as “an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.” Deafness is defined as “a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification.” Thus, deafness is viewed as a condition that prevents an individual from receiving sound in all or most of its forms. In contrast, a child with a hearing loss can generally respond to auditory stimuli, including speech.

14.2. Intervention Strategies

14.2.1. regular speech, language, and auditory training from a specialist;

14.2.2. amplification systems;

14.2.3. services of an interpreter for those students who use sign language;

14.2.4. favorable seating in the class to facilitate lip reading;

14.2.5. captioned films/videos;

14.2.6. assistance of a notetaker, who takes notes for the student with a hearing loss, so that the student can fully attend to instruction;

14.2.7. instruction for the teacher and peers in alternate communication methods, such as sign language; and

14.2.8. counseling.

14.3. case Study

14.3.1. Caroline’s Story Caroline is six years old,she wears a hearing aid in each ear—and has done so since she was three, when she was diagnosed with a moderate hearing loss. For Caroline’s parents, there were many clues along the way. Caroline often didn't respond to her name if her back was turned. She didn't startle at noises that made other people jump. She liked the TV on loud. Her unclear speech and lack of consonant sounds like d, t at the end of words alerted the preschool and suggested that they test Caroline for hearing. The audio logical tests showed that Caroline’s inner ear was damaged[ the cochlea] she had sensor neural hearing loss. She was fitted with a hearing aid. She gets special educational services along with speech therapy which increased her vocabulary and attentiveness. She has special seating in the front row of her class to hear the teacher. This enabled her to absorb the knowledge in class.

15. Intellectual disability

15.1. Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills. These limitations will cause a child to learn and develop more slowly than a typical child. Children with intellectual disabilities (sometimes called cognitive disabilities or, previously, mental retardation) may take longer to learn to speak, walk, and take care of their personal needs such as dressing or eating. They are likely to have trouble learning in school. They will learn, but it will take them longer. There may be some things they cannot learn.

15.2. Causes Genetic conditions. Problems during pregnancy Problems art birth Health problems

15.3. Signs of intellectual disabilities

15.3.1. sit up, crawl, or walk later than other children;

15.3.2. learn to talk later, or have trouble speaking,

15.3.3. find it hard to remember things,

15.3.4. not understand how to pay for things,

15.3.5. have trouble understanding social rules,

15.3.6. have trouble seeing the consequences of their actions,

15.3.7. have trouble solving problems, and/or

15.3.8. have trouble thinking logically.

15.4. Accomodations

15.4.1. Modification of curriculum

15.4.2. Find out what their strengths are andexpand them

15.4.3. Give concrete directions other than verbal instructions- give visual aids

15.4.4. Break Longer tasks into smaller tasks

15.4.5. Give student immediate feedback

15.4.6. Teach student life skills- daily living, social, occupational

16. Multiple disabilities

16.1. means concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness. [§300.8(c)(7)]IDEA

16.2. Causes of Multiple Disabilities

16.2.1. Chromosomal abnormalities Premature birth Difficulties after birth Poor development of the brain or spinal cord Infections Genetic disorders Injuries from accidents (1)

16.3. Accommodations in the classroom

17. orthopedic impairment

17.1. Definition means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g.,cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).

17.2. Accomodations

17.2.1. -Special Seating arrangements to develop useful postures and movement -Instruction focused on development of gross and fine motor skills - Securing augmentative communication and assistive devices -Awareness of medical condition and its effect on the student [tiredness] -Physical therapists who work on gross motor skills -Occupational therapists to work on fine motor skills -Speech and language Patholgists for problems with speech -Adapted PE teachers specially trained to help (Orthopedic Impairments)

18. Other health impairment

18.1. School Nursing services should include

18.1.1. special feedings;

18.1.2. clean intermittent catheterization;

18.1.3. suctioning;

18.1.4. the management of a tracheostomy;

18.1.5. administering and/or dispensing medications;

18.1.6. planning for the safety of a child in school;

18.1.7. ensuring that care is given while at school and at school functions to prevent injury (e.g., changing a child’s position frequently to prevent pressure sores);

18.1.8. chronic disease management; and

18.1.9. conducting and/or promoting education and skills training for all (including the child) who serve as caregivers in the school setting.

18.2. Other health impairment means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that— (i) Is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and (ii) Adversely affects a child’s educational performance. [§300.8(c)(9)](IDEA)

19. Specific learning disability

19.1. Learning disability is a general term that describes specific kinds of learning problems. A learning disability can cause a person to have trouble learning and using certain skills. The skills most often affected are: reading, writing, listening, speaking, reasoning, and doing math. “Learning disabilities” is not the only term used to describe these difficulties. Others include: dyslexia—which refers to difficulties in reading; dysgraphia—which refers to difficulties in writing; and dyscalcula—which refers to difficulties in math.

19.2. Signs of LD

19.2.1. may have trouble learning the alphabet, rhyming words, or connecting letters to their sounds;

19.2.2. may make many mistakes when reading aloud, and repeat and pause often;

19.2.3. may have real trouble with spelling;

19.2.4. may have very messy handwriting or hold a pencil awkwardly;

19.2.5. may struggle to express ideas in writing;

19.2.6. may learn language late and have a limited vocabulary;

19.2.7. may have trouble remembering the sounds that letters make or hearing slight differences between words;

19.2.8. may have trouble understanding jokes, comic strips, and sarcasm;

19.2.9. may have trouble following directions;

19.2.10. may mispronounce words or use a wrong word that sounds similar;

19.2.11. may have trouble organizing what he or she wants to say or not be able to think of the word he or she needs for writing or conversation;

19.2.12. may not follow the social rules of conversation, such as taking turns, and may stand too close to the listener;

19.2.13. may confuse math symbols and misread numbers;

19.2.14. may not be able to retell a story in order (what happened first, second, third); or

19.2.15. may not know where to begin a task or how to go on from there.

19.3. Appropriate Intervention Strategies

19.3.1. breaking tasks into smaller steps, and giving directions verbally and in writing;

19.3.2. giving the student more time to finish schoolwork or take tests;

19.3.3. letting the student with reading problems use instructional materials that are accessible to those with print disabilities;

19.3.4. letting the student with listening difficulties borrow notes from a classmate or use a tape recorder; and

19.3.5. letting the student with writing difficulties use a computer with specialized software that spell checks, grammar checks, or recognizes speech.

19.3.6. Teach organizational skills, study skills, and learning strategies.

19.3.7. Differentiate the product requirement in learning

20. Speech or language impairment

20.1. Speech or language impairment means a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.” [34 CFR §300.8(c)(11]IDEA

20.2. This occurs in the following areas Articulation | speech impairments where the child produces sounds incorrectly (e.g., lisp, difficulty articulating certain sounds, such as “l” or “r”);

20.3. Fluency | speech impairments where a child’s flow of speech is disrupted by sounds, syllables, and words that are repeated, prolonged, or avoided and where there may be silent blocks or inappropriate inhalation, exhalation, or phonation patterns;

20.4. Voice | speech impairments where the child’s voice has an abnormal quality to its pitch, resonance, or loudness; and

20.5. Language | language impairments where the child has problems expressing needs, ideas, or information, and/or in understanding what others say. (1)

20.6. Accomodations

20.6.1. Learn about the disability Provide accommodations for class work, homework, assessments Work with the speech pathologists

21. Traumatic brain injury

21.1. thinking and reasoning,

21.2. understanding words,

21.3. remembering things,

21.4. paying attention,

21.5. solving problems,

21.6. thinking abstractly,

21.7. talking,

21.8. behaving,

21.9. walking and other physical activities,

21.10. seeing and/or hearing, and

21.11. learning.

22. Visual impairment including blindness

22.1. Visual impairment including blindness… …means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness. [§300.8(c)(13)]

22.2. common signs that a child may have a visual impairment

22.2.1. Eyes that don’t move together when following an object or a face

22.2.2. Crossed eyes, eyes that turn out or in, eyes that flutter from side to side or up and down, or eyes that do not seem to focus

22.2.3. Eyes that bulge, dance, or bounce in rapid rhythmic movements

22.2.4. Pupils that are unequal in size or that appear white instead of black

22.2.5. Repeated shutting or covering of one eye (as noticed with Julian)

22.2.6. Unusual degree of clumsiness, such as frequent bumping into things or knocking things over

22.2.7. Frequent squinting, blinking, eye-rubbing, or face crunching, especially when there’s no bright light present

22.2.8. Sitting too close to the TV or holding toys and books too close to the face

22.2.9. Avoiding tasks and activities that require good vision (4)

22.3. CASE STUDY - JULIAN Julian was almost two years old, he developed this habit of closing one eye when he looked at you. It almost seemed as if he were winking. When Julian’s right eye started crossing inward toward his nose…his parents consulted the eye doctor. It was confirmed that Julian had a visual impairment—amblyopia, often called “lazy eye.” As the most common cause of vision problems in children, amblyopia is the medical term used when vision in one eye is reduced because that eye and the brain are not working together properly .He was far sighted .He was given prescription glasses and eye patch on his better eye, so that the weaker eye would be strengthened and communication with the brain increased. The patch was not successful with Julian as he did not like wearing it. This has not helped him and his eye continues to turn inward.

22.4. Accommodations student’s specific visual impairment. What aspects of vision are affected, and how does that affect the student’s ability to move about the classroom, see the board, or read a textbook? accommodations are provided for classwork, homework, and testing.