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G.R.A.P.E.S by Mind Map: G.R.A.P.E.S

1. http://www.medieval-life-and-times.info/medieval-history/medieval-battles.htm http://www.militaryfactory.com/ancient-warfare/ http://allempires.com/article/index.php?q=medieval_europe

2. Geography (Catherine) rome

2.1. Area Around Empire

2.1.1. The empire was spread out over a vast area, giving it a complex geography. Ranging from hot, humid desert to thick, lush forest

2.2. Climate

2.2.1. Rome experienced a Mediterranean climate. With mild winters and hot, dry summers.

2.2.2. Although it differed throughout time

2.3. Rome (city)

2.3.1. Rome is surrounded by volcanos. Volcanic soil is a great fertilizer for crops, as a result Rome became a ideal place for farming. When economy started to collapse, people turned to farming as a way of income.

2.3.2. Unlike other cities, Rome was located on pretty low ground, but like other civilizations the city is located by bodies of water.

2.3.3. Religion Gods (Polytheistic) Apollo, Ceres, Diana, Juno, Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Minerva, Neptune, Venus, Vesta, and Vulcan. Gods (Monotheistic) God the Creator of All Things Places of Worship Household spirits, ceremonies, festivals, and temples. Religious Leaders Constantine converted Roman empire to Christianity; saw a fiery cross on the battle field. Sacrifices Food, Drinks, Objects, and People Sacred meals sacrificed at festivals. Sacrificed people had to be same gender as the god Sacrificed in order to get protection from the gods. Practices Magic, which controlled objects and people. Rain ceremonies to bring rain. Worshiped the field/state for protection

3. Economy (Group)

3.1. Slaves (Natania)

3.1.1. Its main concerns were to feed the citizens of Rome.

3.2. Farming (Catherine)

3.2.1. Farming was a big industry in Rome. Common crops were: grain, olives, and grapes.Mostly slaves and tenant farmers worked on the farms.

3.3. Taxes and Corruption (Ilina)

3.3.1. Taxes were raised to pay soldiers all around the borders of Rome. Since the borders kept expanding, the taxes grew higher and higher.

3.3.2. When economy began to collapse, the rich started to focus on grapes and olives, because they were cash crops and sold for lists of money. As a result people started to buys crops from around the empire and local farms collaped.

3.3.3. Tax collect grew corrupt and began charging more taxes than was due. They kept the extra money for themselves. Owning land (RAHUL) Rich people had owned land and let the poor people farm on it. Now these farmers are called tenant farmers. This was a big way money was earned for the land lord and the farmers.

3.4. Slaves taking Roman citizen's jobs (Brianna)

3.5. Since Rome was getting larger and larger each time they conquered a new region, more and more slaves came in and took over Roman jobs. The slaves had money, but the Roman citizens didn't, and they didn't like that. So, there were riots and revolts, which resulted to violence and chaos.

4. Politics (Ilina)

4.1. Rome was an Empire

4.1.1. Led by the emperor

4.1.2. Conquered lands to grow empire.

4.1.3. Pax Romana Period of Roman peace Ended after Marcus Aurelius died Civil wars and power struggles plagued Rome

4.2. Diocletian split the empire.

4.2.1. During the power struggles, Diocletian took power

4.2.2. Diocletian divided it, in hopes of making it stronger.

4.2.3. Dividing the empire made it weaker.http://www.memecreator.org/static/images/memes/3184399.jpg

4.3. Choosing Emperors

4.3.1. First 2 emperors after Octavian took power smoothly.Later transitions were rough and bloody.

4.3.2. Rich families plotted and murdered for throne

4.3.3. Military leaders used armies to get throne. http://www.memecreator.org/static/images/memes/3184503.jpg

5. Mountains lined the northern and southern ends of Europe. Broken ranges of mountains are formed on the Scandinavian Peninsula, the Alps make a half-circle across Europe, and the Pyrenees separate Spain and France.

6. goverment officials

6.1. military officers

6.1.1. large landowners Middle Class merchants

7. Social Structures (Natania)

7.1. High Class

7.1.1. Local Aristocrats

7.1.2. Government Officials

7.1.3. Military Officers Large Landowners

7.2. Middle Class

7.2.1. Merchants

7.2.2. Landonwners Lower Class

8. Byzantine Empire

8.1. Geography (Brianna)

8.1.1. Located in Northern Mediterranean

8.1.2. Capital is Constantinople Short springs, cool summers, long autumns, rainy winters http://www.mediterraneangardensociety.org/climate.html

8.1.3. Climate Summers: dry, varied humidity, rarely any rain, occasional thunderstorms http://www.mediterraneangardensociety.org/climate.html

8.1.4. Temperature Average temperature: 60°F http://www.mediterraneangardensociety.org/climate.html Coldest Month: February (41°F) http://www.mediterraneangardensociety.org/climate.html Hottest Month(s): July-August (73°F) http://www.mediterraneangardensociety.org/climate.html

8.1.5. Food Main source of food is fishing; on a peninsula http://thehistoryofthebyzantineempire.wordpress.com/2014/08/31/fishing-byzantine-style/

8.1.6. Animals and Plants Common Animals: Wild goats, Sheep, mouflon, and horses. The land supports lynx, Wild boar, rabbits, and vultures. http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/med_chaparral.htm Common Plants: Shrubs, eggplants, oranges, lemons, rice, and cabbage http://www.cooksinfo.com/byzantine-food

8.2. Byzantine Religion (Ilina)

8.2.1. late 300s AD-Christianity became Byzantine's main religion. Church organization • Bishop headed of all churches in a certain region, helped by deacons, deaconesses, elders. The patriarch of Rome was the Pope.

8.2.2. 325 AD-Arguments over Christ’s nature caused the Nicene Creed to be made.

8.2.3. 700s-Arguments over icons led to 1054 became a factor causing the Great Schism

8.2.4. The Hagia Sofia was built in the time of Justinian as a church.

8.2.5. Spreading Christianity late 800s- Eastern Orthodox missionaries spread Byzantine culture and Christianity. People, such as merchants and scholars, came to Constantinople and learned Christianity and spread it to their home lands.

8.3. Art/Architecture/Accomplishments/Culture

8.3.1. One type of Byzantine art form is called icons. Icons are images of Jesus, Mary, or Saints.

8.3.2. Another type of byzantine art is called mosaics. Mosaics are art forms made out of stained glass or small pebbles. They are put on concrete to make an image.

8.3.3. A famous building in Constantinople is known as the Hagia Sophia.. The Hagia Sophia is a church which was built very beautifully and every detail of it was accounted for.

8.4. Politics/Military

8.4.1. Military well advanced and well trained Made greek fire 673 AD

8.4.2. Justianian and Theodora great rulers built Hagia Sophia wanted to reunite rome spent lots of money on military made jutianian's code seemed harsh allowed women to inherit property preserved Roman tradition

8.4.3. Justianian and Theodora great rulers

8.4.4. Polotics kings ruled empire constantly under attck attckers: Sassanid Persians, the Arab Ummayad and Abbasid Caliphates, the Seljuk and Ottoman Turks, the Bulgars, Normans, Franks, Russians and Serbians,

8.4.5. Constantinople easy to defend simular to Rome same lifestyle diffrent location

8.5. Economy

8.5.1. The Byzantine Empire did not have a money system, but they had a system of trading Silk

8.5.2. Trade Luxurious silks, spices, incense,

8.5.3. Trade Routes The Red Sea a was an important trade corridor between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean (Ilina)

8.5.4. The Byzantine Empire is in the middle of many trade routes, so they got to exchange many items from foreign countries. (Brianna)

8.6. Social Structures(Natania)

8.6.1. Higher Class local aristocrats

9. Europe and Islam

9.1. Geography (Ilina and Natania)

9.1.1. extends from present-day Portugal to China. area had fertile land for crops to grow and contained many minerals there were oceans nearby where they could get resources needed to survive

9.1.2. Europe was often described as the “peninsula of peninsulas”. As the name suggests, Europe was lined with peninsulas, such as the Scandinavian Peninsula and Jutland. Geography (Ilina and Natania) When it was at its height, they conquered North Africa and Spain

9.1.3. Religion (Natania) They believed in Christianity and made art that was for glorifying God Gothic Cathedrals spread all across Europe

9.2. Art/Architecture/Accomplishments/Culture (Ilina)

9.2.1. New methods of farming were used, such as the Three-Fields System and using a iron plow and a horse. These new farming methods produced more food, which caused people to be healthier and live longer, which in turn created an increase in population. http://education-portal.com/cimages/multimages/16/three-field-crop-rotation.jpg

9.2.2. Letters of credit were invented to protect merchants from being robbed. these letters allowed merchants to deposit money in a bank in one city and withdraw money in another city. http://faireinthegrove.com/images/Medieval-Marketx-500px.jpg

9.2.3. Art in the medieval ages was mostly dedicated to glorify God. http://jiones.iics-k12.com/files/2013/09/medieval-artwork.png

9.2.4. Gothic cathedrals came into fashion in the 1100s. These types of cathedrals were decorated with stone carvings of saints, paintings of angels of saints, and stained glass windows depicting Bible stories. http://geomancy.org/images/chartres.jpg

9.2.5. All information for the Arts/Accomplishments/Architecture/Culture Sections is from the History Textbook.

9.3. Politics/Military Europe (Brianna and Catherine)

9.3.1. Thomas Aquinas (philosopher) admired Aristotle and believed in natural law.

9.3.2. Many battles, like the The Battle of/on Agincourt, Finnsburgh, Grünwald , Hims, Kulikovo, Liegnitz, Neva, Standard, Tours, and Ice

9.3.3. Weapons like: Claymore (sword), crossbow, francisca (throwing axe), spears, guisarme (polearm), halberd (long axe)

9.3.4. Fourth Crusade happened: funded by Italian, annihilated and abducted women

9.3.5. military tactics abandoned during dark ages

9.3.6. hundreds year war between England and France.

9.3.7. people voted for new leader

9.3.8. Politics/Military Islam (Brianna and Catherine) Everyone followed Five Pillars 1st: Believe there is no one but Allah (God); declaration of faith 2nd: Pray five times daily while facing Mecca 3rd: Charity- give to poor and be selfless 4th: Fasting at Ramadan (Celebrating hearing and vision from God) 5th: Pilgrimage to Kaaba at least once No gambling, eating pork (unclean), alcohol, or stealing Have a mosque (religious school) in the middle of every city military tactics abandoned during dark ages. hundred's year war between England and France there were several dynasties

9.4. Economy (Catherine)

9.4.1. • Used money system after Rome fell. •started using letters of credit

9.4.2. lots of trade in northern Europe import: spices, linen, pearls, perfumes, salt, silk, paper, dishes, wood, coconuts, gems, gold export: iron, wine, oils, wax started using lighthouses to help direct trade ships new inventions started to spread along trade routes. religion and culture also spread along trade routes 2 ways to travel, on foot with caravans or at sea with dhows

9.4.3. • After crusades kings of England and France started charging taxes. • During peluge rulers started to charge more and more taxes. •crops sold to keep up with the upcoming taxes.

9.4.4. little to no protection on roads

9.4.5. http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/medieval/economy/ http://www.lordsandladies.org/middle-ages-trade-commerce.htm

9.5. Social Structure Europe (Brianna)

9.5.1. Renaissance (About 1300 A.D. to 1500 A.D.)

9.5.2. 1st Class: King/Queen

9.5.3. 2nd Class: Clergy/Nobles Popes, priests, scribes, friars, people of wealth or nobility

9.5.4. 3rd Class: Villagers Traders, merchants, blacksmiths

9.5.5. 4th Class: Peasants Commoners, slaves, servants, serfs

9.5.6. Womens' Role (Peasant): cleaning, cooking, farming, and supporting and obeying husband

9.5.7. Womens' Role (Villager): business- trading, selling

9.5.8. Womens' Role (Clergy/Noble): ran large household

9.5.9. Mens' Role (Villager): business- trading, selling, blacksmith

9.5.10. Mens' Role (Clergy/Noble): responsible for large areas of land

9.5.11. Social Structure Islam (Brianna) 1st Class: Arabs 2nd Class: non-Arabs (captured people who converted) 3rd Class: Jews and Christians 4th: Slaves (captured people who did not convert) Mens' Role (including every man): Supports family, represents family, and have religious fairness with women. Womens' Role (including every women): stayed home mostly, did basic chores, had fewer rights, but still had religious fairness with men.