Courage in TKAM

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Courage in TKAM by Mind Map: Courage in TKAM

1. Moral Courage

1.1. Defined as having the courage to stand up for what you believe in, despite opposition or however disadvantaged you are in the situation.

1.2. Dubose determined to overcome her morphine addiction

1.2.1. "It suddenly came to me that each day we had been staying a little longer at Mrs. Dubose’s, that the alarm clock went off a few minutes later every day, and that she was well into one of her fits by the time it sounded. "

1.2.1.1. This shows that Dubose is putting more time in between her doses of morphine, which is measured by the time Jem and Scout are reading at her house. By gradually increasing the time between her morphine medications, she went through more pain and suffering each time but persevered, showing moral courage in the form of having the determination to drop her addiction.

1.3. Atticus against Alexandria on Calpurnia

1.3.1. "Alexandra, Calpurnia’s not leaving this house until she wants to. You may think otherwise, but I couldn’t have got along without her all these years. She’s a faithful member of this family and you’ll simply have to accept things the way they are. "

1.3.1.1. This shows that Atticus is standing up for Calpurnia and her contributions to her house, despite Alexandra technically being more authoritative than him. He does not immediately accept what Alexandra says and instead stands up for what he believes is right, which is Calpurnia's staying in the Finch household despite her being a Negro, which Alexandra disapproves of. This shows moral courage as Atticus stands up for what he believes is right rather than blindly going with the flow of authority without raising his personal views.

1.4. Link Deas standing up for Tom Robinson in court

1.4.1. "Mr. Link Deas rose from the audience and announced: 'I just want the whole lot of you to know one thing right now. That boy’s worked for me eight years an‘ I ain’t had a speck o’trouble outa him. Not a speck.' "

1.4.1.1. Similarly to how Atticus stands up for Calpurnia, Link Deas stands up for Tom by providing a testimony for him, despite it being disallowed in the courtroom. This shows moral courage since he stands up for what he believes in and defends the innocent Tom Robinson, which came before the consideration of the court's regulations.

1.5. Atticus defending Tom Robinson

1.5.1. " “It couldn’t be worse, Jack. The only thing we’ve got is a black man’s word against the Ewells‘. The evidence boils down to you-did—I-didn’t. The jury couldn’t possibly be expected to take Tom Robinson’s word against the Ewells’ "

1.5.1.1. This shows that Atticus is fighting a losing case in defending Tom Robinson, supporting a Negro in a time when prejudice against African Americans was rampant. However, despite the odds against him, Atticus still stood up for Tom who was innocent and this shows his moral courage in standing up for what he believes in and not being discouraged by the implications of such acts, such as humiliation and shunning from the community around him.

2. Physical Courage

2.1. Defined as being able to withstand physical hardship and pain with disregard for physical danger

2.2. Jem and Scout protecting their father from the lynch mob

2.2.1. "So it took an eight-year-old child to bring ‘em to their senses, didn’t it?” said Atticus. “That proves something—that a gang of wild animals can be stopped, simply because they’re still human."

2.2.1.1. This quote shows how Scout helped to subdue the lynch mob by allowing them to empathise with Atticus. Despite the physical danger Scout was in with the presence of the lynch mob, she held her ground and risked her safety to protect Atticus from the lynch mob, showing an example of physical courage.

2.2.2. "you children last night made Walter Cunningham stand in my shoes for a minute"

2.2.2.1. Jem, Scout, and Dill made Walter Cunningham, supposedly the leader of the lynch mob, empathise with Atticus, protecting him from the lynch mob.

2.3. Jem protecting Scout from Robert "Bob" Ewell

2.3.1. " Someone rolled against me and I felt Jem. He was up like lightning and pulling me with him"

2.3.1.1. Jem, too, was hurt by Bob Ewell in his attempt to murder the two children, but instead of fleeing the scene to ensure his own safety, he risked himself against an armed and dangerous Bob Ewell in order to protect Scout and get her to safety, showing how he demonstrated physical courage by putting his life in danger to protect Scout.

2.4. Arthur "Boo" Radley stabbing Robert "Bob" Ewell to protect Jem and Scout

2.4.1. "Suddenly he was jerked backwards and flung on the ground, almost carrying me with him."

2.4.1.1. Arthur Radley managed to pin Bob Ewell, who was choking Scout, to the ground. This shows his involvement in the fight against Bob Ewell to ensure the children's safety despite Bob Ewell being armed with a knife ready to kill.

2.4.2. "The scuffling noises were dying; someone wheezed and the night was still again."

2.4.2.1. Bob Ewell had been stabbed by his own knife and Arthur Radley had demonstrated physical courage by putting his life on the line to protect Jem and Scout. despite all that they have done to torment him.

2.4.3. " It was slowly coming to me that there were now four people under the tree."

2.4.3.1. Scout coming to the realisation that the person defending her was not Jem.

2.5. Atticus shooting the rabid dog

2.5.1. "With movements so swift they seemed simultaneous, Atticus's hand yanked a ball-tipped lever as he brought the gun to his shoulder."

2.5.1.1. This shows how Atticus kept his cool in a tense situation, which was shooting a rabid dog that could have potentially transmitted the deadly disease to him in a swift and calm manner. Atticus defending Maycomb from the rabid dog by responding to Heck Tate's call show his physical courage at risking his own life and infection to rabies for the safety of Maycoumb.

2.6. Jem retrieving his pants from the Radley yard

2.6.1. "'Please,' I pleaded, 'can’tcha just think about it for a minute—by yourself on that place—''Shut up!'"

2.6.1.1. This quote shows how Jem does not heed Scout's warning about entering the Radley compound. Earlier, they had seen how Radley was armed with a shotgun and would not hesitate to fire it at intruders, emphasising the dangers present on the compound. Despite knowing this and Scout's warning, Jem still resolved to retrieve his pants from the Radley yard, showing his physical courage to maintain his honor above the physical dangers it posed.

3. Bravado

3.1. Defined as a false show of courage often driven by impulse