Chapter 8-10

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Chapter 8-10 by Mind Map: Chapter 8-10

1. CH. 9 Autonomy

1.1. Emotional Autonomy

1.1.1. One of the first signs of individuation may be the adolescents de-idealzuation of his or her parents

1.1.2. Healthy individuation is fostered by the close, not distant, family relationships, with adolescents encouraged to develop and assert their individuality.

1.1.3. Adolescents who are raised in in authoritative homes where the parents are both accepting and tolerant, enjoy many psychological advantages over their peers, including a more fully developed sense of emotional autonomy.

1.2. Behavioral Autonomy

1.2.1. As individuals mature they become better able to seek out and weigh the advice of individuals with different degrees of expertise and to use this information on making independent decisions.

1.2.2. One controversy invokes whether adolescents decision making abilities, are mature enough to warrant their treatment as adults under the law.

1.2.3. Susceptibility to to peer pressure is high during early adolescents but decreases over the high school years.

1.2.4. Parents who are often authoritarian or extremely permissive, are the most easily influenced by their friends, especially in anti-social contents.

1.3. Cognitive Autonomy

1.3.1. According to Kohlberg's theory, late adolescence is a time of potential shifts from a morality that defines right and wrong on terms of societies rules to one that defines right and wrong on the basis of ones own basic moral principles.

1.3.2. Their moral behavior does not always match their moral reasoning, in part because contextual factors influence how they act when they face moral dilemmas in the real world.

1.3.3. Changes in the domain of political and religious thinking during adolescence also reflect the individuals growing sense of cognitive autonomy. As with moral reasoning,political and religious thinking become more abstract, more principle, and more independent, especially during the late adolescents.

2. CH.10: Intimacy

2.1. Theoretical Perspectives

2.1.1. The need for intimacy emerges in preadolescence and is typically satisfied through same-sex friendships. according to Sullivan.

2.1.2. The attachment theory now dominates the study of intimate relationships in adolescence. individuals who enjoyed a secure attachment to their caregiver during their infancy develop a healthier or more secure internal working model of relationships, which is thought to permit more satisfying intimate relationships during adolescence and adulthood.

2.1.3. There is evidence that interpersonal development is cumulative. Positive experiences in early family relationships contribute to social competence, intimate relationships with peers and romantic partners.

2.2. Development of Intimacy in Adolescence

2.2.1. Adolescents place more emphasis on trust and loyalty as defining features of friendship, becoming more self-disclosing in their relationships, and becoming more responsive and sensitive to their friends needs.

2.2.2. Sex differences in the expression of intimacy in adolescents'' friendships are striking, with girls' relationships being more intimate than boys' across many different indicators.

2.2.3. Many adolescents have platonic friendships with other-sex peers. Other-sex friendships help to set the stage for the emergence of romantic relationships later on.

2.3. Dating and Romantic Relationships

2.3.1. Changes in context of dating are in nature and function of dating. As adolescents develop, dating shifts from a focus on infatuation and status, to intimacy, and, finally to bonding.

2.3.2. Early intense dating appears to have adverse effects on adolescents mental health and behavior, a moderate degree of dating after age 15 or so is associated with better mental health and well-being, than no dating at all.

2.3.3. When they have supportive and satisfying relationships at home they are more likely to have high quality friendships, which are more likely to have high quality romantic relationships.

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4. CH.8: Identity

4.1. Changes in Self Conception

4.1.1. The five basic personality dimensions in adolescence and adulthood are: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience.

4.1.2. During the transition into adolescence, self-concept, become increasingly complex, abstract, and psychological.

4.1.3. Adolescents self-conceptions are more differentiated better organized than those of children.

4.2. Changes In Self Esteem

4.2.1. During early adolescents, individuals may experience periods of heightened self-consciousness, and their self-image may fluctuate more than during other period.

4.2.2. Males and black adolescents have a higher self-esteem than females or other ethnic groups. Although sex differences in self-esteem are much more pronounced among white teenagers. Asian adolescents have especially low self-esteem relative to their peers.

4.2.3. Across all demographic groups, high self-esteem is related to parental approval, peer support, and success in school. Although its difficult to disentangle cause and effect, high self-esteem is assoiciated with better mental health, whereas low self esteem is correlates with number of emotionsl problems.

4.3. Identity Crisis

4.3.1. According to Erikson, the major psychosocial issue of adolescence revolves around the identity crisis, coming to terms with where one is headed.

4.3.2. A young person needs some time out of the excessive responsibilities, in order to resolve identity crisis. A psychosocial moratorium, in order to engage in identity exploration and experimentation.

4.3.3. Problems in identity development can result when the individual has not resolved earlier crisis or when the adolescent is an environment that doesn't provide the necessary period of psychosocial moratorium.

4.4. Ethnic Identity

4.4.1. Racial socialization is the process through which parents attempt to teach their children about their ethnic identity and about the special experiences they may encounter within the boarder society as a result of their ethnic background.

4.4.2. Positive mental health among ethnic minority adolescnts is associated with having a strong, positive ethnic identity, and discrimination, an awareness of the potential of the mainstream culture.

4.4.3. one understudied group of adolescents for whom developing a sense of ethnic identity may be especially challenging are biracial youth. Whose parents are not from the same ethnic or racial group.