Matter :- Matter is also used loosely as a general term for the substance that makes up all obse...

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Rocket clouds
Matter :- Matter is also used loosely as a general term for the substance that makes up all observable physical objects. The everyday objects that we can bump into or squeeze are composed of atoms. This atomic matter is in turn made up of interacting subatomic particles—usually a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a cloud of orbiting electrons. Typically, science considers these composite particles matter because they have both rest mass and volume. by Mind Map: Matter :-  Matter is also used loosely as a general term for the substance that makes up all observable physical objects. The everyday objects that we can bump into or squeeze are composed of atoms. This atomic matter is in turn made up of interacting subatomic particles—usually a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a cloud of orbiting electrons. Typically, science considers these composite particles matter because they have both rest mass and volume.

1. Properties of Matter

1.1. Viscosity

1.1.1. A viscous liquid, such as paint, does not flow easily. A liquid such as water, flows easily.

1.2. Capillarity

1.2.1. There are tiny spaces between the threads of the cloth. These tiny spaces allow water to be sucked up by the cloth. Objects such as plastic, do not suck up water. They have no spaces in them.

1.3. Density

1.3.1. How much something weighs for its size is called density. Two objects of the same size may not weight the same.

1.4. Conductivity

1.4.1. Heat moves through solids very quickly. They are called conductors. Plastics are poor conductors of heat. They are called insulators.

1.5. Elasticity

1.5.1. Elasticity is the ability of a solid to regain its original size and shape after it has been squeezed or stretched.

1.6. Hardness

1.6.1. Hardness refers to the ability of a solid the resist scratching. It is measured on the Moh's scale from 1 to 10

1.7. Surface Tension

1.7.1. Eg.1) Surface tension holds water in drops. Water molecules are pulled towards each other. 2) Surface tension makes the surface of the water behave like an elastic skin.

2. Three States of Matter(Sometimes the fourth state: Plasma)

2.1. Solid

2.1.1. In a solid the particles (ions, atoms or molecules) are closely packed together. The forces between particles are strong so that the particles cannot move freely but can only vibrate. As a result, a solid has a stable, definite shape, and a definite volume. Solids can only change their shape by force, as when broken or cut.

2.1.2. In crystalline solids, the particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern. There are various different crystal structures, and the same substance can have more than one structure (or solid phase). For example, iron has a body-centred cubic structure at temperatures below 912 °C, and a face-centred cubic structure between 912 and 1394 °C. Ice has fifteen known crystal structures, or fifteen solid phases, which exist at various temperatures and pressures.

2.1.3. Glasses and other non-crystalline, amorphous solids without long-range order are not thermal equilibrium ground states; therefore they are described below as nonclassical states of matter.

2.1.4. Solids can be transformed into liquids by melting, and liquids can be transformed into solids by freezing. Solids can also change directly into gases through the process of sublimation.

2.2. Liquid

2.2.1. A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure. The volume is definite if the temperature and pressure are constant. When a solid is heated above its melting point, it becomes liquid, given that the pressure is higher than the triple point of the substance.Intermolecular (or interatomic or interionic) forces are still important, but the molecules have enough energy to move relative to each other and the structure is mobile. This means that the shape of a liquid is not definite but is determined by its container. The volume is usually greater than that of the corresponding solid, the best known exception being water, H2O. The highest temperature at which a given liquid can exist is its critical temperature.

2.3. Gas

2.3.1. A gas is a compressible fluid. Not only will a gas conform to the shape of its container but it will also expand to fill the container.

2.3.2. In a gas, the molecules have enough kinetic energy so that the effect of intermolecular forces is small (or zero for an ideal gas), and the typical distance between neighboring molecules is much greater than the molecular size. A gas has no definite shape or volume, but occupies the entire container in which it is confined. A liquid may be converted to a gas by heating at constant pressure to the boiling point, or else by reducing the pressure at constant temperature.

2.3.3. At temperatures below its critical temperature, a gas is also called a vapor, and can be liquefied by compression alone without cooling. A vapour can exist in equilibrium with a liquid (or solid), in which case the gas pressure equals the vapor pressure of the liquid (or solid).

2.3.4. A supercritical fluid (SCF) is a gas whose temperature and pressure are above the critical temperature and critical pressure respectively. In this state, the distinction between liquid and gas disappears. A supercritical fluid has the physical properties of a gas, but its high density confers solvent properties in some cases, which leads to useful applications. For example, supercritical carbon dioxide is used to extract caffeine in the manufacture of decaffeinated coffee.

2.4. Plasma

2.4.1. Like a gas, plasma does not have definite shape or volume. Unlike gases, plasmas are electrically conductive, produce magnetic fields and electric currents, and respond strongly to electromagnetic forces. Positively charged nuclei swim in a "sea" of freely-moving disassociated electrons, similar to the way such charges exist in conductive metal. In fact it is this electron "sea" that allows matter in the plasma state to conduct electricity.

2.4.2. The plasma state is often misunderstood, but it is actually quite common on Earth, and the majority of people observe it on a regular basis without even realizing it. Lightning, electric sparks, fluorescent lights, neon lights, plasma televisions, some types of flame and the stars are all examples of illuminated matter in the plasma state.

2.4.3. A gas is usually converted to a plasma in one of two ways, either from a huge voltage difference between two points, or by exposing it to extremely high temperatures.

2.4.4. Heating matter to high temperatures causes electrons to leave the atoms, resulting in the presence of free electrons. At very high temperatures, such as those present in stars, it is assumed that essentially all electrons are "free", and that a very high-energy plasma is essentially bare nuclei swimming in a sea of electrons.