The Structure of Canada

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The Structure of Canada by Mind Map: The Structure of Canada

1. Federal Government:

1.1. Legislative Branch:

1.1.1. The House of Commons is a democratically elected body, whose members are known as Members of Parliament.

1.1.2. National voting is available to all Canadian citizens aged 18 or older.

1.1.3. The Senate of Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons, and the monarch (represented by the governor general).

1.2. Executive Government:

1.2.1. The Govener General of Canada is David Johnston, he is the head of states in Canada and was appointed by the monarche as his or her representative.

1.2.2. Stephen Harper is the Prime Minister of Canada, the leader of the political party with the majority of elected seats.

1.2.3. The Cabinet of Canada is a council of ministers chosen and led by the Prime MInister.

1.2.4. Thomas J Mulcair is currently the leader of the Official Oppisiton.

1.2.5. List of Federal Responsibilities: defence, criminal law, employment insurance, postal service, census, copyrights, trade regulation, external relations, money and banking, transportation, citizenship, and Indian affairs.

1.3. Judical Branch:

1.3.1. The judicial branch is a series of independent courts that interpret the laws passed by the executive and legislative branch.

2. Provincial Government:

2.1. Premier:

2.1.1. A premier is the head of government of a province or territory.

2.2. Lieutenant Governor:

2.2.1. The Governor General of Canada appoints the Lieutenant Governors to carry out most of the monarch's constitutional and ceremonial duties for an unfixed period of time.

2.3. MLA's (Members of Legislative Assembly:

2.3.1. Member of Legislative Assemblies are members of the elected provincial government and are called MLAs in all provinces and territories.

2.4. Provincial Cabinet:

2.4.1. The cabinet is responsible for the administration of government and the establishment of government policy.

2.5. Voting:

2.5.1. To vote in a provincial election you must: be registered as a voter, be a Canadian citizen, be at least 18 years old on General Voting Day, be a resident of the electoral district where the election is being held.

2.6. Provincial Responsibilities:

2.6.1. List of Provincial Responsibilities Aboriginal Relations Agriculture and Rural Development Culture (formerly Culture and Community Services) Education Energy Enterprise and Advanced Education Environment and Sustainable Resource Development Health (formerly Health & Wellness and Seniors) Human Services Infrastructure International & Intergovernmental Relations Justice and Solicitor General Municipal Affairs Service Alberta Tourism, Parks and Recreation Transportation Treasury Board and Finance

3. Municipal Government:

3.1. Municipal Responsibilities and Government:

3.1.1. Municipal government is a type of local council authority that provides local services, facilities, safety and infrastructure for communities.

3.1.2. List of Municipal Responsibilities: Agriculture services Airports Ambulance services Animal control Business licences. Bylaw enforcement Cemeteries Community or convention centres or halls Cultural facilities (museums, libraries) Emergency and disaster services Family and community support services Fire services Municipal land use planning Parks and pathways Police services Public lighting Public transportation Recreation facilities and programs Roads, streets and walks Sanitary sewage and treatment Storm sewers and drainage Tourism Water supply and distribution Waste management

3.2. Aboriginal-self Governments:

3.2.1. Aboriginal-self Government refers to proposals to give governments representing the Aboriginal peoples of Canada greater powers of government.

4. Monarchy:

4.1. The Governor General is the representative of the Queen in Canada.

4.1.1. Duties and Responsibilities: 1). Representing the Crown and ensuring there is always a prime minister. 2). Acting on advice of prime minister and cabinet ministers to give royal assent to bills passed in the Senate and House of Commons. 3). Signing state documents. 4). Reading the throne speech. 5). Presiding over swearing-in of the prime minister, chief justice and cabinet ministers.

4.2. A Lieutenant Governors' primary task is to perform the sovereign's constitutional duties on his or her behalf.

5. Prime Minister:

5.1. How one could get to being Prime Minister?

5.1.1. 1). Any Canadian citizen of the voting age of 18 or older can become prime minister of Canada. 2). To become prime minister, a person must first be elected leader of a national political party. 3). It is customary for the Prime Minister to also be a sitting member of the House of Commons.

5.2. Duties of a Prime Minister?

5.2.1. The Prime Minister selects the other Ministers of the Crown for appointment by the Governor General, chairs meetings of the Cabinet, directs the government's policy and legislative agenda, and advises the Governor General and the Queen on the performance of their constitutional duties.

5.3. How long could one be the Prime Minister of Canada?

5.3.1. Prime ministers of Canada do not have a fixed term of office. instead, they may stay in office as long as their government is supported by parliament under a system of responsible government.

6. The Senate:

6.1. How many members are there?

6.1.1. Currently, there are 96 senators

6.2. How can you be in the Senate? And how long could you stay there?

6.2.1. Requirments to Be a Senate: be a Canadian citizen; • be at least 30 years of age; • own $4,000 of equity in land in the home province or territory; • have a personal net worth of at least $4,000; and • live in the home province or territory.

6.3. Duties of a Senator?

6.3.1. The main role Canadian Senators have is in providing "sober, second thought" on the work done by the House of Commons.

7. House of Commons:

7.1. Role and Responsibilites?

7.1.1. They act as ombudsmen by providing information to constituents and resolving problems. They act as legislators by either initiating bills of their own or proposing amendments to government and other Members’ bills. They develop specialized knowledge in one or more of the policy areas dealt with by Parliament, and propose recommendations to the government. They represent the Parliament of Canada at home and abroad by participating in international conferences and official visits.

7.2. How can I become a member of Parliament?

7.2.1. Any Canadian citizen at least 18 years of age on polling day, who is qualified as an elector, is eligible to be a candidate in an election. [74] A candidate must have established residency somewhere in Canada but not necessarily in the constituency where he or she is seeking election. [75] A candidate may seek election in only one electoral district.

7.3. How many seats does each province and Territory have?

7.3.1. The population of each [rovince and territory serves as the main basis for assigning the seat total to each. Today, there are 301 Members from 10 provinces and three territories: 34 for British Columbia, 26 for Alberta, 14 forSaskatchewan, 14 for Manitoba, 103 for Ontario, 75 for Quebec, 10 for New Brunswick, 11 for Nova Scotia, four for Prince Edward Island, seven for Newfoundland, and one each for the Yukon Territory, the Northwest Territories, and Nunavut.

8. Official Opposition:

8.1. Who are they and what is their job/responsibilty in government?

8.1.1. Usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the House of Commons or a provincial legislative assembly that is not in government.

9. Provincial Government:

9.1. What are the similarities and differences between Provincial and Federal Government?

9.1.1. They both have an executive, legislative and judicial branch.

10. Judicial Branch:

10.1. Top court in Canada?

10.1.1. Supreme Court of Canada.

10.2. How can you become a judge?

10.2.1. To become a judge you need to be a Canadian citizen; you’ll also be expected to have legal experience.

10.3. Hierarchy of the Canadian Judicial System.

10.3.1. Provincial courts, which deal with small claims courts, traffic cases, family law and minor criminal matters; Superior Provincial courts, which handle more serious matters; the courts of appeal; and the Supreme Court of Canada.