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Bulimia by Mind Map: Bulimia

1. How has the public been affected after seeing so many celebrities with this eating disorder?

1.1. Polly Vernon wrote "Admit It. You Hate Me Because I'm Thin." This is bias like Spencer, but they balance each other out. This is from 2003.

1.1.1. ABCD: This is bias like Spencer, but it is for the opposite argument. This article was found in a creditable book. -liked being thin because it gave her extra attention because she was now a part of a "glam super-thin super-class." because here thinness wasn't just next to godliness: it rated way, way above it...everyone basically applauded her all the time and she got many new friends (now treated like a celebrity)...she loves it when people say "you've lost too much weight"

1.2. "Body Image – Film and TV." MediaSmarts. MediaSmarts, n.d. Web. 04 May 2014. <http://mediasmarts.ca/body-image/body-image-film-and-tv>.

1.2.1. ABCD: This source explains where pressures come from and references specific events/media. It isn’t biased because it provides two perspectives. Only 5% of women on sitcoms are overweight typically when an overweight character appears on a show, they are made fun of with negative comments...people laugh One in four overweight characters are unpopular Girls who watch a lot of TV are more likely to think that looks are the most important thing about themselves and would rather be known for outer beauty and not the inside. Today, models weigh on average 23% less than a normal woman Magazines usually end up photo shopping men and women who aren't "fit or lean" enough when they really are advertisers believe thin models help sell products, but really it adds insecurities British Vogue editor ( Alexandra Shulman) accused fashion designers for forcing magazines to hire underweight models since they only provide "minuscule" outfits for the photo shoots...Shulman retouches photos to make models not look as thin Photoshop and computer generated models make even more unrealistic pressures on men and women...they often take out hips, ribs, and colorbones 2011 the American Medical Association urged governments and industry bodies to stop retouching models, warning “we must stop exposing impressionable children and teenagers to advertisements portraying models with body types only attainable with the help of photo editing software." Girls who say they know about Photoshop still want to look like those models It is an estimated $60 billion that the U.S. spent on temporary weight loss Girls who are unhappy with their bodies are more at risk for attempting suicide

1.3. "Media Influence." Eating Disorders and. Rader Programs, 2014. Web. 04 May 2014. <http://www.raderprograms.com/causes-statistics/media-eating-disorders.html>.

1.3.1. ABCD: This an amazing source that provides explanations as to why different media sources are providing different pressures. This website is current, non-bias, and reliable since the Rader Program actually helps people. People on diets usually have depression 79% of girls who purge read women’s fitness and health magazines often. 9/10 junior and senior high school girls diet while only 1/10 of them is overweight media images and messages encourages girls to think they are happier/more successful when they are thinner harmful messages are even reaching kids because there is so much media (newspaper, radio, TV) saying that “to be fat is to be undesirable”...everyone hears it Negative media makes adolescents feel flawed Can you name 5 female celebrities who are overweight? on average, women have 13 negative thoughts about their body a day Glamour magazine did a survey...the results: 61% are ashamed of hips, 64% embarrassed of their stomach, and 72% ashamed of their thighs Fashion models weigh 23% less than the average women 10 years ago, plus sized models were on average size 12-18...now the average plus size model is 6-14 People magazine did a survey that showed 80% of females feel insecure about their bodies because of women in movies and tv shows.

1.4. Mimi Spencer's perspective is from 2006.Spencer is a British columnist for Guardian Observer. This piece is taken from "The Shape We're In."

1.4.1. ABCD: Spencer is a British columnist. She has done her research, but the information is bias. The “Eating Disorder” book has another perspective to balance it out though. -in today's society, we have engraved the pictures of super thin celebrities as normal and it no longer shocks us...now we look at our own bodies like they are too big...our brains have been "rewired" -in magazines, a "heavyweight" who is "tipping the scale" is 112 pounds -thin is what sells so there is a lot more pressure on celebrities to be thin which makes "normal" people want to be like them since it is seen as more beautiful to be thin -"thinspirational" images have caused girls to say "I envy her thin legs and chest" or "She has beautiful bones sticking out of her chest." but Dr. Dee Dawson says that with those bones she'll be osteoporotic very early, unlikely to menstruate, her muscles are being eaten form within, and her heart will have wasted away -some celebrities have admitted to being permanently hungry in order to maintain body shape -even when magazines say they are going to try to balance the size of models, it never happens because it is a supply and demand thing...statistics show that a beautiful skinny girl on the cover will sell more copies because "thin people can pull of anything" -everyone compares and is hypercritical of peers...it has nothing to do with impressing men because it is a competition between females -the public is involved/watching/critiquing celebrities more than ever

1.5. Synthesis: Media and celebrities have had a huge impact on how people see themselves, especially body image. The new normal has definitely changed because people no longer think anything is wrong with the small size of celebrities and models. Models are so thin because thin is what sells and advertisers say thin girls look good in everything. This adds so many new pressures and unrealistic goals for women, and even very young girls who shouldn't be having these negative thoughts about themselves while in elementary school or junior high. The majority of models are even Photo shopped,yet girls still want to be their size. Then on TV, whether its a show, movie, or advertisements, thin people are seen as beautiful and popular while the heavier ones are there to laugh at. This makes people watching think they need to be thin in order to be happy and beautiful. Our society needs to change how we think because it isn't healthy and these goals are unrealistic.

2. Are there similar characteristics between all bulimics? (Which ones? Why? How does it affect which method they choose and therapy?)

2.1. Pidd, Helen. "A Little More Conversation." Guardian Unlimited [London] 3 June 2006: 208. Print.

2.1.1. ABCD: Even though this story is just a snippet I think it provides a different perspective and answers this question. This is a reliable source because of the book it is from. -Cognitive Behavioral Therapy barely mentions the past. Therapist try to encourage rationalizing thoughts to see connection between feelings and actions. During therapy, they recognize unhelpful patterns of behavior and replace them. THhis could be instead of binge eating, control emotions by talking to a friend or doing something active

2.2. Mickley, Diane. "Medication for Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia." Eating Disorders Today. N.p.: n.p., 2004. 199-204. Print.

2.2.1. ABCD: Not biased, just facts about benefits of medication over therapy by providing information of the brain and symptoms. It answers several of my questions. I trust the book the piece is from and find it credible. -Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): most famous is Prozac (fluoxetine), but there is also sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), fluvoxamine (Luvox), and citalopram/escitalopram (Celexa/Lexapro)...all of these raise serotonin levels in the brain -also used for other psychological disorders such as OCD, PTSD, phobias, panic attacks, etc.. -Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are associated with altered levels of chemical messengers in the brain for best short term success rates cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) dose fluoxentine work well...especially together side effects of medication are actually pretty low, especially compared to the actual eating disorder itself -the most common side effect of olanzapine is sedation while for SSRIs there is some nausea, headaches, fatigue, or insomnia, but these side effects don't last long

2.3. Schapman-Williams, Ann M., James Lock, and Jennifer Couturier. "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents with Binge Eating Syndromes: A Case Series." International Journal of Eating Disorders (2006): 252-55. Web.

2.3.1. ABCD: These credible authors teamed up provide tons of facts, stories, and a graph that answers my question about therapy. It is from a reliable book. -significant reduction in behavioral, cognitive, and emotional aspects of BN after treatment... reduction in rates of purging per week, overexercising and meal restrictions diminished, and EDE significantly declined from pretreatment to post treatment assessments -EDE: Eating Disorder Examination -adolescents with BN need early intervention -Graph of mean time per week of binge eating and purging before and after CBT...binge eating went form 10 to 1 while purging went from 10 to 0

2.4. "Frequently Asked Questions about Eating Disorders." Frequently Asked Questions about Eating Disorders. The Eating Disorder Foundation, 2013. Web. 01 May 2014. <http://www.eatingdisorderfoundation.org/EDFFAQ.htm>.

2.4.1. ABCD: I think I would just use this source if I need to check back on some information since it has a ton of random facts. The publisher of this site is reliable and not biased. -To avoid eating disorders in children, parents need to be good role models who don't provide pressure and don't critique their own body weight because kids learn by example -friends and family of a bulimic needs to provide support and empathy...but most importantly, they shouldn't back down if they are denying help because it is deadly -about half of bulimics who get up get a full recovery while 30% just have a partial recovery -the mortality rate is 5.6% per decade -some other unusual symptoms of BN are severe dental problems including loss of teeth and bone, growth of facial hair on women, weakening of heart and other organs, loss of muscle tissue, brittle hair and nails, and lowered resistance to infection

2.5. Sylva, Kathryn, and Robin Lasser. "Eating Disorders in a Disordered Culture." Eating Disorders in a Disordered Culture. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2014. <http://www.eating.ucdavis.edu/default.html>.

2.5.1. ABCD: This whole website is really useful because a bunch of bulimics put up their own stories and how they became bulimic. It is eye opening and sad to me when they share why they do it. -"My problem had less to do with weight and more to do with the impossible standards is set for myself" -"My concern with weight was really a sum of other people's influences, most notably my mother's" -while clothes shopping Jessica's mom would say "look at your thighs. You are a pretty young girl and you shouldn't be walking around with thighs like that" or while eating "you must be really hungry to have another spoonful of rice" -after eating "forbidden" foods like cookies, Jessica would ask herself "How can you do this, you pig?"...she was weighed down by "vicious self-criticism" -couldn't let go in therapy...says "we all owe it to ourselves to set ourselves free!" -looks in the mirror everyday with a pep talk about accepting herself in that moment...had to tune out voices in her head felt happier when thin, but then realized that her friends were thinner -Tina wasn't happy with what she saw in the mirror -after eating, she feels "hefty" and wants to get rid of it fast -Wendy has a strong guilt after eating unhealthy foods -"I know it is dangerous, but in my state of mind at the time, I just don't care. It is a as if I am a different person when I do this. I am possessed by a force stronger than me and I can't control myself." Dede wanted to be everything for everyone...felt a lot of pressure -Mary Jo was embarrassed of her body...she realized it in class when she had to bring in a picture -feels guilty after binge eating -throws up because then she can "have my cake and eat it" -had suicidal thoughts -went to hospital for treatment and later depression -Ann says that when dealing with Bulimia she had lowered self-esteem, bloated face, stomach pains, sore throat, disgust, and lies. -got involved with men who, like her father, were never satisfied with her which made her disgusted with her imperfections Stacey said she only started purging to lose a few pounds (like 10 or 20) but then it was in control of her...binging and purging was a cycle along with starving Devon got a sense of comfort from purging

2.6. Johnson, Craig, and Cynthia Bulik. "Brave New World: The Role of Genetics in the Prevention and Treatment of Eating Disorders." University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 6 Nov. 2002. Web. 2 May 2014. <www.wpic.pitt.edu%2Fresearch%2Fpfanbn%2Fgenetics.html>.

2.6.1. ABCD: I found this section interesting because it was saying eating disorders can be hereditary. This provides a whole new perspective and it is from a reliable book. -relatives of individuals with eating disorders are at a greater risk for developing and eating disorder -shared environment -gene mutations that lead to rare forms of obesity which leads to lifestyles of high fat diets and overeating (this is for sure)....so is it possible for a mutation that results in anorexia or bulimia?

2.7. Synthesis: Bulimics are all very different, but in general, the reason for becoming bulimic are very similar. People often start starving themselves, purging, and exercising excessively because of pressure from family, peers, and the media, because they are embarrassed of their body, or because they wanted to be happier and get rid guilt from eating unhealthy foods. Bulimics can use medication, but doctors believe therapy is better. Doctors highly recommend both though. People who try to go through therapy are told to think positively and control emotions that make them binge. This will help their recovery and start having normal eating patterns. This process usually takes a long time because bulimics are stuck in their ways of thinking they aren't good enough and need to be smaller. The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy helps bulimics lower their standards in a good way because all bulimics have high standards set for themselves.

3. How is bulimia related to depression? (self image, suicide, symptoms and solutions)

3.1. "Bulimia Symptoms and Effects." Bulimia. Timberline Knolls Residential Treatment Center, 2005-2014. Web. 30 Apr. 2014. <http://www.timberlineknolls.com/eating-disorder/bulimia/signs-effects>.

3.1.1. ABCD: This website has a ton of information and there is also a tab setup for depression which will give me easy access to compare. It is reliable since it is a residential treatment center that knows what they are dealing with. guilt and shame about weight and body shape are central signs/symptoms of bulimia bulimics may feel “trapped in an addictive relationship with food” food can be the only solution to deal with problems and then moments later food is the source of all problems in life...this balance of food and losing weight makes it harder for people to notice that a person has a problem...binge-purge cycle signs of bulimia: depression, anxiety, social isolation, negative body image, and preoccupation with body shape/image some effects include extreme social isolation, inability to sleep, suicide, internal bleeding, and fractured relationships with family and friends

3.2. Smith, Melinda, Joanna Saisan, and Jeanne Segal. "Depression Symptoms & Warning Signs." : Recognize Depression Symptoms & Get Help. Help Guide, Apr. 2014. Web. 02 May 2014. http://www.helpguide.org/mental/depression_signs_types_diagnosis_treatment.htm

3.2.1. ABCD: Since this isn’t my actual topic, this website is perfect for me since it is just a lot of basic information that I can compare bulimia to. The authors are reliable and have Ph.D., M.A., and a M.S.W.. some similar characteristic depressed people have are lost your appetite or can't stop eating, feel hopeless and helpless, can't control negative thoughts no matter how hard you try, have suicidal thoughts, changes in weight and appetite, loss of energy, sleep changes,and are much more irritable, short-tempered,or are aggressive some people have described depression as "living in a black hole" and having "impending doom" Depression varies from person to person just like bulimia depression is more common in women just like bulimia depressed women have more pronounced symptoms of guilt, sleeping excessively, overeating, and gaining weight depressed teens tend to be very hostile and lose their temper easily

3.3. Synthesis: Bulimia and Depression are actually very similar, especially when it comes to the symptoms. Both disorders can be deadly and needs some sort of therapy and/or medication to get better. The similar side effects include suicidal thoughts, loss of energy, sleep changes, strange eating habits, a secretive lifestyle with many negative thoughts, short tempers, and anxiety. All these symptoms vary person to person in both disorders. I think the biggest similarity is that both bulimics and depressed people feel trapped.