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MITE6330 - INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN (Edited by Mag Xu) by Mind Map: MITE6330 - INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN (Edited by Mag Xu)



2.1. Education, Learning, and Technology

2.1.1. Authors J.Ana Donaldson Nancy Nelson Knupfer

2.1.2. Technology

2.1.3. Paradigm shifts in psychology, teaching, and learning Behaviorism Ivan Pavlov John B.Waston Edward Thorndike B.F.Skinner Programmed instruction Cognitivism or Information Processing Psychology Alfred Binet Jean Piaget Aschcraft Schema theorists stress the importance of prior knowledge in order for students to comprehend new material. Robert Gagné Critical Thinking Be reviewed as higher level, deeper thinking processes that lead to better understanding through logic, analyzing, inferring, judging, planning, and problem-solving Gardner's seven types of intelligence Constructivism Stanley Pogrow The constructivist view of learning asserts that learners "construct" their own meaning/knowledge from the information they acquire. Engaged learning theory and technology implementation John Dewey Piaget

2.1.4. Issues, controversies, and problems Need for teacher training and supportive infrastructure Although American K-12 schools have computer technology resources, K-12 teachers do not have meaningful strategies with which to integrate their classroom use effectively. Yet questions remain about the ability of teacher education programs to prepare K-12 teachers to meet the challenges of the new cyber world. Yet the typical higher education situation is notoriously far from ideal due to lack of training, support, and resources, combined with an old structure of course requirements and heated debate about the value of technology for learning. Power, control, access, equity and choice In order to feel more comfortable, the teachers will need enough access to the technological resources to become proficient at using the technology in a meaningful way and have the support necessary to allow them time to collaborate in planning interdisciplinary activities with their colleagues. A difficult idea to adjust to is the notion that knowledge is dynamic and not static. Opposition to technology in the classroom

2.1.5. Solutions and recommendations Using technology to facilitate engaged learning

2.2. Instructional design models for online instruction: from the perspective of Iranian higher education

2.2.1. Research questions Which instructional design models are currently used for online instruction? What factors affect the choice of instructional design models for online instruction? Which elements of ID models are necessary in design and developing online instruction?

2.2.2. Methdology Delphi research Survey questionnaire

2.2.3. Main finindgs Five most commonly used ID models ISD ADDIE Gagne & Briggs Morrison, Ross, & Kemp Dick, Carey, & Carey Three least commonly used ID models Just-in-time Design Rapid Prototyping R2D2 Time, ease of use and familiarity with the ID model were consistently ranked as the top three factors that participants stated influence choice of ID models for online instruction According to the finding, the use of instructional design model is very important for the design, and development of online instruction

2.3. Finding e3 (effective,efficientandengaging)Instruction

2.3.1. Author Merrill, M David

2.3.2. Course evaluation rubric First principles course evaluation rubric Instructional event summary Demonstration e3 quality rubric Application e3 quality rubric

2.3.3. First principles of instruction

2.3.4. Five types of component skill

2.3.5. Instructional strategies for component skills

2.3.6. Problem-centered instructional strategy

2.3.7. Task-centered instructional strategy

2.3.8. Effective peer interactions

2.3.9. Effective use of multimedia

2.4. Students’ confidence and perceived value for participating in cross-cultural wiki-based collaborations

2.4.1. Authors Ertmer, Peggy A Newby, Timothy J Liu, Wei Tomory, Annette Yu, Ji Hyun Lee, Young Mi

2.4.2. Abstract 1. Examined changes in students’ motivation (confidence and perceived value) after participating in the creation of a wiki chapter, especially related to new and emerging Web 2.0 technologies 2. Discuss students’ perceptions of project barriers as well as the strategies they implemented to achieve success

2.4.3. Methodology Pre- & post-survey Focus group interview

2.4.4. Main findings It may account, at least partially, for students’ growing confidence related to both understanding the pedagogical uses of web 2.0 tools In this study, an increase in participants’ confidence appeared to be influenced by their engagement in successful project experiences that resulted in a product of which they were proud Students responded positively to the usefulness of the applications and expressed their desire to use them in the future (current value and future value) Additional factors impacting perceived value (intrinsic reinforcement and extrinsic rewards)


3.1. Instructional Design

3.1.1. Concept A system of procedures for developing education and training programs in a consistent and reliable fashion.

3.1.2. Characteristic A systemic and systematic approach Interdependent, synergistic, dynamic, cybernetic

3.2. ADDIE - An Instructional Design Model

3.2.1. Analyse Core Items Whether it's an instructional problem The objectives of the instructional program or products is established Learner needs are evaluated A project plan for design and development is laid out Needs Assessment What's Needs Assessment Why Needs Assessment (purpose) When do Needs Assessment How to do Needs Assessment (data collection) Performance Analysis Instruction or Non-instruction Causes of performance gaps Mager & Pipe's Flowchat Training Need Analysis Training Needs Non-Training Needs Task Analysis What's task analysis How to conduct task analysis What are the job standard What are job conditions Hierarchical task diagram Learner Analysis Actual Performances Learner Characteristics Visual or audio

3.2.2. Design Learning Objectives learning goals vs. learning objectives Why objectives ABCD approach of writing objectives Higher-order thinking skills Motivation Definitions Intrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation Motivation in instruction: ARCS model A framework to guide: Gagne's 9 events of instruction Nine Events of Instruction (Robert Gagné) Design Instructional Material Select existing materials Developing instructional materials: preproduction Rapid prototyping

3.2.3. Develop Develop instructional materials Printed materials Visual Aids Multimedia software packages Set up the LMS Set the standard of the instructional materials Layout Screen design (e.g. control button) Use of font (e.g. size and colour) Use of various media Factors that affect the quality of the instructional materials Time Human Resources Equipment Storyboarding Passive storyboards Active storyboards Interactive storyboards Rubrics and tools Rubrics Web 2.0 tools Tools for instructional design

3.2.4. Implement Delivery Actual delivery of the instruction Trail run of the materials with feedback from learners Experiment Beta-testing Alpha-testing Integration Training procedure developed Consideration of time, cost, resources

3.2.5. Evaluate 1. Evaluation of outcome 2. Evaluation of instruction Challenges Getting people to apply what they learn to on-the-job behaviour Showing the value of learning to the bottom line-return on stakeholders' expections Kirkpatrick model: 4 levels Kirkpatrick model Boehle (2006) Reaction Learning Behaviour Results

3.3. Other Models

3.3.1. ASSURE ANALYSE learners STATE objectives SELECT methods, media and materials UTILIZE media and materials REQUIRE learner participation EVALUATE and revise

3.3.2. Dick and Carey System Approach The model addresses instruction as an entire system, focusing on the interrelationship between context, content, learning and instruction.

3.3.3. Waterfall (couple of different types) Traditional Modified

3.3.4. Kemp design model Kemp design model

3.3.5. Transactional model of direct instruction

3.3.6. Scripted lesson Present smaller amounts of new information and skill training in each lesson, often accounting for only 10-15% of the total lesson.


4.1. What's learning

4.1.1. Behaviorism Basic concepts Classical - involuntary (S-R) Operant - voluntary (Reinforcement) Implication to learning learning objectivies practice with feedback types of reinforcement/punishment Schedules of reinforcement Interval schedules Ratio schedules

4.1.2. Cognitivism Information Processing Model Information processing model Stage theory Sensory memory Short-term memory (working memory) Long-term memory The role of attention Overcome working memory limited capacity What are the implications of CIP(Cognitive Information Processing) for learning? multiple representations for encoding organized instruction to facilitate encoding

4.1.3. Constructivism David Perkins' belief Schools should not just be concerned about the achievement gap but also the relevance gap Types of constructivism Personal/individual constructivism Social constructivism Mixture of both personal&social constructivism Constructivist condition for learning Embed learning in relevant and realistic settings Provide for social negotiation Nurture self-reflection of knowledge construction

4.2. Instructional Theory

4.2.1. First principles of instruction Demonstration Principle Learner Guidance Relevant Media Peer-demonstration and Peer-discussion Application Principle Feedback Enhancing application performance Coaching Peer collaboration Task-centered Principle Task-centered vs. Problem-based instructional strategies Task-centered Principle Activation Principle Activation Principle Prior knowledge or experience Sharing previous experience Supporting structure and structure-guidance-coaching-reflection cycle Integration Principle Reflection Peer-critique Personal use Public demonstration

4.2.2. Elaboration Theory (Charlie Reigeluth) According to elaboration theory, instruction should be organized in increasing order of complexity for optimal learning. Seven major strategy components: 1. an elaborative sequence 2. learning prerequisite 3. summary 4. synthesis 5. analogies 6. cognitive strategies 7. learner control

4.2.3. Conversation (Gordon Pask) Learning occurs through conversations about a subject matter which serve to make knowledge explicit Principles To learn a subject matter, students must learn the relationships among the concepts. Explicit explanation or manipulation of the subject matter facilitates understanding (e.g., use of teachback technique). Individual's differ in their preferred manner of learning relationships (serialists versus holists).

4.2.4. Multimedia theory (Mayer) Multimedia theory Dual-Channel Assumption Limited Capacity Assumption Active Processing Assumption

4.2.5. Forgetfulness Memory curve

4.2.6. Designing for blended-learning What's blended-learning Blended-learning A mixture of online and face–to–face (f2f) activities is usually referred to as blended learning. Why blended-learning 1. Flexibility to work on the course activities at students' own convenient time and pace 2. Improve communication with students via computer mediated communication tools 3. Lower the average overall per-pupil costs etc.

4.2.7. 7 principles of good teaching Good practice encourages student-faculty contact Good practice encourages cooperation/interaction among students Good practice encourages active learning engage your mental capacity Good practice gives prompt feedback Good practice emphasizes time on task the actual time you do, not you dream Communicates high expectations Respects diverse talents and ways of learning