Ed 100 Mind Map

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Ed 100 Mind Map by Mind Map: Ed 100 Mind Map

1. Reynolds, C. (2012, 10 31). Why are schools brainwashing our children?. Maclean's, Retrieved from http://www2.macleans.ca/2012/10/31/why-are-schools-brainwashing-our-children/ Ghosh, R. (2008). Racism: A hidden curriculum. Education Canada, 48(4), 26-29. Wallace, J. (2007). Inclusive schooling and gender. Alberta Teachers' Association, Retrieved from http://www.teachers.ab.ca/For Members/Professional Development/Diversity and Human Rights/Gender Equity/Pages/Inclusive Education.aspx Clarke, P. (2012). Freedom of religion and postsecondary education in canada: Resolving competing claims. Religion and Education, 39(2), 189-201. Walton, G. (2004). Bullying and homophobia in canadian schools: The politics of policies, programs, and educational leadership. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 1(4), 23-36.

2. Gerald Walton

2.1. Historical Perspective

2.1.1. “1999 Columbine massacre, administrators in Canada and the United States were increasingly pressed to take action against school violence by parents’ groups, teachers’ associations, and education critics.” (Walton, 2004, p. 24)

2.1.2. “Result of the Taber shooting, administrators could no longer be complacent about the potential for similar incidents in Canadian schools. “(Walton, 2004, p. 24)

2.1.3. “The 1997 beating and murder of sixteen-year-old Reena Virk by her peers actually occurred away from school property.” (Walton, 2004, p. 24) “The Greater Victoria School District is committed to each student’s success in learning within a responsive and safe environment.”(Greater Victoria School District, 2003)(Walton, 2004, p.24)

2.1.4. “In 2003, the city council of Edmonton, Alberta, backed by the local police and school boards, passed the first controversial bylaw that officially banned bullying of people under the age of 18”(Teotonio, 2003)(Walton, 2004, p. 25)

2.1.5. “In 2002, Marc [Hall] took his Catholic public school board to court for not allowing him and his boyfriend to attend the high school prom (Smith, 2002).” (Walton, 2004, p. 26)

2.1.6. “Toronto Board of Education considered the issue of homophobia in schools after a fatal gay bashing of a school librarian at the hands of five male high school students (Campey et al., 1994).” (Walton, 2004, p. 27)

2.1.7. “Triangle Program was designed specifically to meet the educational and social needs of LGBT youth (Toronto District School Board, 2003).” (Walton, 2004, p. 27) “Triangle functions necessarily as a crisis management program through a strategy of segregation.” (Walton, 2004, p. 27)

2.2. Philosophical Perspective

2.2.1. “A generalized fear, fueled by media preoccupation and sensationalism, is now the status quo.” (Walton, 2004, p. 24)

2.2.2. “Two Ministry of Education publications, Focus on Bullying: A Prevention Program for Elementary School Communities (1998), and Focus on Harassment and Intimidation: Responding to Bullying in Secondary School Communities (2001)” (Walton, 2004, p. 25)

2.2.3. “Bullying is typically considered a relation of power of one or more individuals over another with attacks that are repetitive and intended to harm (Olweus, 1993). The power of heterosexuals and heteronormativity, however, has been ignored. (Walton, 2004, p. 26)

2.2.4. “Straightness is imbued with the status of being “normal” and “natural” not only through gender socialization but through construction of sexual otherness as inferior.”(Walton, 2004, p. 26)

2.2.5. “Sites of compulsory heterosexuality (Rich, 1993), such as schools, enshrine straightness and marginalize LGBT individuals.” (Walton, 2004, p. 26)

2.2.6. “Some parents are supportive, many express concern that discussions about homosexuality might have some undue influence on their children or that educational administrators are undermining what their children are taught at home. Teachers often avoid discussing LGBT issues in the classroom because of such parental concerns or administrative reactions (O’Conor, 1995). (Walton, 2004, p. 28)

2.2.7. “Typical media representations of school violence (popularly consumed by the public through newspapers, television, and magazines) fuel a moral panic among parents in every reading, in every viewing. Similarly, the fear of discussing sexual diversity or addressing homophobia has also fueled a moral panic. The fact that both school violence and homophobia are integrally related is lost on many adults. (Walton, 2004, p. 29)

2.3. Sociological Perspective

2.3.1. “Delegates agreed that bullying occurs in all schools and in all societies and that strategies for intervention and prevention are vital for ensuring students’ emotional and physical safety.” (Walton, 2004, p. 25)

2.3.2. “Schools function, in part, as agencies that perpetuate class stratifications (Young & Levin, 2002), neoliberal market values (Apple, 1996), dominant gender scripts (Frank, 1996), and heterosexuality (Epstein & Johnson, 1994)” (Walton, 2004, p.26)

2.3.3. “This focus on physical violence alone, in combination with anti-bullying initiatives that avoid homophobia, indicates that safety is enhanced for some students and not others, even in schools districts that purport to provide “safety for all students”. (Walton, 2004, p. 29)

2.3.4. “Violence is culturally valorized, legitimized, and supported through discourses of nationalism, vengeance, male privilege, religious zeal, and in several media venues of entertainment.” (Walton, 2004, p. 30)

2.3.5. "For students who have been systematically victimized by homophobia and ignored by their educators, the Canadian court system is proving to be a powerful but costly form of redress.” (Walton, 2004, p. 32)

2.3.6. “Homophobia, like racism and sexism, manifests as violence perpetrated by an individual or group but links to larger social realms of politics, public policy, legal structures, and institutional processes.” (Walton, 2004, p. 30)

3. Paul Clarke

3.1. Sociological Perspective

3.1.1. “The BCCT claimed that TWU’s proposed program was discriminatory and contrary to public policy and the public interest.” (Clarke, 2012, p. 191)

3.1.2. “Schools are meant to develop civic virtue and responsible citizenship to educate in an environment free of bias, prejudice and intolerance. (Clarke, 2012, p. 191)

3.1.3. “Students have a right to be educated in a school setting free from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.” (Clarke, 2012, p. 193)

3.1.4. “Alleged religious discrimination in the context of a graduate English course. Ms. Cynthia Maughan, an Anglican student in the course, claimed in both proceedings that she had been the victim of discrimination because of her Christian beliefs. (Clarke, 2012, p. 194) “Trivial and unsubstantiated claims of religious discrimination cannot be used to defeat legitimate exercises of professional academic freedom.” (Clarke, 2012, p. 199)

3.1.5. “It demonstrates why academic freedom is so important to the university context. This freedom is essential to guarantee the basic and core dialogue that transpires on campuses.” (Clarke, 2012, p. 197)

3.1.6. “A university environment that prides itself on robust, open, and authentic exchanges will inevitably generate controversy and conflict as byproducts of the academic discourse.” (Clarke, 2012, p. 198)

3.1.7. “On a university campus, one has no right not to be offended.” (Clarke, 2012, p. 198)

3.1.8. “This case does not stand for the proposition that religious freedom has no place in the academy. By virtue of academic freedom and free speech, students and faculty alike are entitled to express their religious viewpoints on a host of subjects.” (Clarke, 2012, p. 198)

3.1.9. “TWU demonstrates that private religious institutions may adopt community standards, in accordance with the confessional institutional mandate, to protect institutional integrity and individual students who attend that university.” (Clarke, 2012, p. 199)

3.2. Philosophical Perspective

3.2.1. “The British Columbia College of Teachers refused to give full accreditation to TWU’s teacher education program because it claimed that the anti-homosexual philosophy expressed in the Community Standards document was problematic. “ Clarke, 2012, p. 191)

3.2.2. “The majority reasoned that one can hold discriminatory beliefs and that religious freedom will protect those beliefs provided one does not act on them.” (Clarke, 2012, p. 193)

3.2.3. “Classrooms are “the intellectual incubators of Canada’s most vulnerable and impressionable citizens.”” (Clarke, 2012, p. 193)

4. Janice Wallace

4.1. Historical Perspective

4.1.1. “In 1970, the Royal Commission on the Status of Women in Canada recognized the importance of schooling as a location for addressing gender inequity and made several specific recommendations for improving educational opportunities for girls and women.” (Wallace, 2007)

4.2. Philosophical Perspective

4.2.1. “Suggesting not that nontraditional gender norms become the new traditional norms but, rather, that the boundaries around the expression of gender in school practices become more flexible and open to multiple possibilities.” (Wallace, 2007)

4.2.2. “ To organize our pedagogical practices as though being a girl or being a boy is an immutable category does a disservice to boys and girls in subtle and not-so-subtle ways. The challenge for educators is to recognize that gender does have significant effects--- both positive and negative--- on the learning opportunities of our students.” (Wallace, 2007)

4.2.3. “Their conclusion is supported by Ashley’s (2003) work in the UK, which reveals that peers rather than teachers—male or female—are the dominant role models for boys.” (Wallace, 2007)

4.2.4. “Schools, especially elementary schools, have become feminized” (Wallace, 2007)

4.2.5. “Dominant male norms act as an inhibitor for both men and women seeking nontraditional organizational roles.” (Wallace, 2007)

4.3. Sociological Perspective

4.3.1. “Socio-economic class has a known effect on school success and must be considered carefully along with the effects of gender. These effects are further exacerbated by the ways in which work is being reorganized within the conditions of globalization.” (Wallace, 2007)

4.3.2. “The past offererd young men well-paid jobs that required physical strength more than strong literacy skills. As those kinds of jobs have become more dependant on technology, literacy requirements have increased, and boys with inadequate literacy skills have become vulnerable to a more demanding workplace.” (Wallace, 2007)

4.3.3. “Men contemplating the teaching positions most stereotypically attached to femaleness—that is, positions in the early primary grades – perceive themselves to be caught between feminized expectations for working with young children, traditional masculine ideals and the unchallenged homophobia that fuels fears about men working with young children.” (Wallace, 2007)

4.3.4. “The influence of gender is unmistakable in almost every aspect of schooling: the organization of work is gendered; the organization and privileging of curriculum are gendered; interactions between students and staff are gendered; and results, whether measured by standardized or nonstandardized tests, are gendered.” (Wallace, 2007)

4.4. Dominant Perspective

4.4.1. “The girls are here to learn how to be teachers, and the boys are here to learn how to be principals.” (Wallace, 2007)

4.4.2. “Men are reluctant to seek teaching positions in the elementary grades because doing so places their enactment of masculinity under scrutiny.” (Wallace, 2007)

5. Ratna Ghosh

5.1. Philosophical Perspective

5.1.1. “Transcultural networks will be essential because today’s youth form heterogeneous groups that cannot easily be ethnically defined; they represent: multiple cultural histories and creatively integrate various ways of negotiating intergenerational as well as intercultural challenges.” (Ghosh, 2008, p. 29)

5.1.2. “Critical questioning and discovery, the educational system should incorporate multiple perspectives and different ways of knowing and learning. “ (Ghosh, 2008, p. 29)

5.1.3. “Uncritical teaching leads to the maintenance of the existing ideology.” (Ghosh, 2008, p. 28)

5.1.4. “Violent attitudes, actions and environments lead to a construction of the ‘other’ by producing social separation between dominant and subordinate groups.” (Ghosh, 2008, p. 28)

5.1.5. “The problem of Eurocentric educational systems across Canada does produce racist effects, largely through textbooks’ nonrecognition and mis-recognition of the contribution of groups of people.” (Ghosh, 2008, p. 28)

5.1.6. “To understand the nature of difference we must ask: Different from whom? Different in what way?” (Ghosh, 2008, p. 27)

5.1.7. “Difference can also be understood as that which is not in the image of the dominant group in terms of characteristics identified as being of another race or ethnicity from one’s own.” (Ghosh, 2008, p. 27)

5.2. Sociological Perspective

5.2.1. “Race, then, is a socially created concept for classifying people, ostensibly based on visible physical differences (e.g. skin colour, facial features, hair texture) and increasingly, on religious symbols.” (Ghosh, 2008, p. 27)

5.2.2. “Racism is not a matter of cultural differences and misunderstandings, it is a matter of political power. It is the implementation of classifications, which—directly or indirectly—work to preserve power structures and privileges, which are themselves based on changing axes of control.” (Ghosh, 2008, p. 27) “Racism can only be exercised by people in power.” (Ghosh, 2008, p. 27)

5.2.3. “Prejudice is the belief; discrimination is the action. We need to distinguish racial prejudice (belief) from racism (act) because actions involve power.” (Ghosh, 2008, p. 27)

5.2.4. “ The ‘hidden curriculum’. Educational discourse (language and practice) perpetuates racism in subtle ways.” (Ghosh, 2008, p. 28) “The hidden curriculum refers to the socialization process in schooling—a curriculum that is taught without being formally ascribed. It emanates from social, political, and cultural environements of the society and must be understood in resaltion to the overall societal power structures (of ethnicity, class, and gender for example) that influence the education system.” (Ghosh, 2008, p. 28)

5.2.5. “Often teachers, perhaps inadvertently, exacerbate existing power inequalities by reinforcing social attitudes through their own prejudices and stereotypical assumptions about student capabilities and cultural behavior.” (Ghosh, 2008, p. 28)

5.2.6. “Fairness is not equal treatment but equality of opportunity; it is to recognize difference without allowing it to categorize people.” (Ghosh, 2008, p. 28)

5.2.7. “Education is a vehicle that can be used to prevent racism.” (Ghosh, 2008, p. 28)

6. Cynthia Reynolds

6.1. Sociological Perspective

6.1.1. “ Tory MPP Rob Milligan spoke out against the Grade 3 Toronto class protesting the oil pipeline, calling it “brainwashing” and “an abuse of power”.” (Reynolds, 2012)

6.1.2. “”Social Justice” generally entails a strongly progressive bent, and the idea of political manipulation creates fiercely negative reactions among parents.” (Reynolds, 2012)

6.1.3. “Against the last century’s backdrop of human-rights abuses, war atrocities and environmental devastation, today’s education architects argue, we have a duty to provide a moral, socially conscious education.” (Reynolds, 2012)

6.1.4. “The idea is to encourage kids to become critical analysts of contemporary issues, empathetic defenders of human rights and gatekeepers of the beleaguered Earth.” (Reynolds, 2012)

6.1.5. “An elementary school education rooted in social-justice principles.” (Reynolds, 2012)

6.2. Philosophical Perspective

6.2.1. “Social justice might entail teaching kids to care for the Earth by having them plant trees in the schoolyard. Another might have the same children write letters to the government about the environmental effects of mining, urging it to reform how mining claims are processed.” (Reynolds, 2012)

6.2.2. “In the name of inclusiveness, some school boards include Wiccan holidays in their school calendars.” (Reynolds, 2012)

6.2.3. “A grounding in social-justice math, for instance, helps kids learn to question numbers--- whatever their conclusions might be. (Reynolds, 2012)

6.2.4. “Social justice in education is a trend that has come and gone over the past century, but nowadays one can specialize in it at teachers’ college, and there are courses and textbooks instructing teachers on how to approach the subject in the classroom.” (Reynolds, 2012)

7. Citations