History of Visual Communication

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History of Visual Communication by Mind Map: History of Visual Communication

1. Cave Paintings 30,000tears ago

1.1. detailed representations on cave walls as form of communication

1.2. 3 reasons why they were created

1.2.1. story telling

1.2.2. religious superstition

1.2.3. instuction

1.3. Lascaux

1.3.1. destroyed by allowing tourists

1.4. Altamira

1.4.1. red hue because of clay

1.5. Chauvet Pont d'arc

1.5.1. oldest known cave painting sight

1.6. common themes

1.6.1. large animals

1.6.2. tracing of human hands

1.6.3. abstract patterns

1.7. brushes/paint

1.7.1. paint made from clay, charcoal, water, pland juice, animal blood, hematite

1.7.2. brushes made from sticks, animal hair, leaves, and small stones

2. Cuneiform

2.1. First written language

2.1.1. Form of writing used to keep track of business transactions

2.1.2. began as a series of pictographs

2.2. made on clay tablets

2.2.1. used stylus to form impressions in clay

2.3. created by Sumerians

2.3.1. theocratic culture ruled by king

2.3.2. skilled artists

2.3.3. music was important

2.4. evolved overtime

2.4.1. became more abstract

2.4.2. Number of characters grew

3. Egyptian Hieroglyphics/ 6th century BCE

3.1. system of writing consisting of logo graphs and alphabetic elements

3.2. from Greek words Hiero (sacred) and Glyphics (writing)

3.3. written by scribes

3.3.1. People of Egypt that learned to read and write

3.3.1.1. Military leaders so they could communicate during battle

3.3.1.2. Priests to read rituals preformed to please the gods

3.4. Napoleon Bonaparte and french army invaded Egypt in 1789

3.4.1. Found the Rosetta tone

3.4.1.1. Written in 3 languages

3.4.1.1.1. Egyptian Hieroglyphics

3.4.1.1.2. Demotic

3.4.1.1.3. Greek

3.4.1.2. French scholar Jean Francois Champollion depicted the hieroglyphic on stone

3.4.1.2.1. matched Hieroglyphic symbols with with Greek words

3.4.1.3. Resides today in Britain

4. The Phonetic Alphabet

4.1. Three theories of origin

4.1.1. Direct variation of Heiroglyphics

4.1.2. Tied to Cumiform

4.1.3. Independent creation

4.2. Language layout

4.2.1. one symbol represented one spoken sound

4.2.2. All letters started with constants

4.3. Success of of alphabet

4.3.1. Unique

4.3.1.1. Went from right to left

4.3.2. Trade culture allowed the alphabet to spread

4.4. Eliminated class divisions

4.4.1. Allowed the common people and lower class to learn how to read and write

5. The Codex and the Illuminated Manuscript

5.1. Scrolls

5.1.1. constructed in two ways

5.1.1.1. Long continuous piece of papyrus

5.1.1.2. Separate sheets glued together at the edges

5.1.2. rolled in two ways

5.1.2.1. rolled all the way up

5.1.2.2. had wooden rollers at the end

5.1.3. drawbacks

5.1.3.1. could only be used in sequential usage

5.2. Codex

5.2.1. a covered and bound collection of handwritten pages

5.2.2. Advantages

5.2.2.1. compact

5.2.2.2. sturdy

5.2.2.3. better point of reference that scroll

5.2.2.4. Easier to organize

5.2.2.4.1. Could write on the spine

5.2.2.5. could open up to any page

5.2.3. adopted by Christianity

5.2.3.1. The bible

5.3. Illuminated Manuscript

5.3.1. Book written by the Monastic Monks that were considered works of art

5.3.2. Had art all over the page and text

5.3.3. Declined because of the printing press

6. The Gutenberg Press

6.1. Introduced by Johannes Gutenberg

6.1.1. Motivated by mint that his father took him to

6.1.2. Also introduced oil based ink

6.2. Definition: Hand Press in which ink was rolled over the raised surface of mobile handset letters held within a wooden frame

6.3. First movable type system developed in China

6.3.1. carved from wood

6.4. Movable type is the system of printing that uses movable components to reproduce elements of a document

6.4.1. quicker and more durable and lettering was uniform

6.4.2. A matrix is The stamp or metal print that was used to create uniform writing

6.5. John Frust

6.5.1. Person who Gutenberg turned to to invest in his inventions

6.5.1.1. created a deal saying If Gutenberg could not repay the loan within 5 years, Fust would get the press, tools, and materials

6.5.2. Took credit for Rosenberg's inventions

6.6. 4 major printing processes used today:1. Relief Printing 2.Intaglio 3.Porous 4.Lithography

6.7. First printed book was The Bible

7. The Linotype Machine

7.1. Created because people wanted an easier way to print and produce multiple coppies

7.2. Christopher Scholes

7.2.1. Created first successful typewriter

7.2.1.1. Tested by James Clephane

7.2.1.1.1. Went to James Ottmar Meregethaler for improvement suggestions

7.3. Allowed type to be set mechanically rather than by hand

7.4. Name comes from fact that it creates an entire line of print at a time

7.5. 90 key keyboard

7.5.1. Black keys= lower case letters

7.5.2. White keys= CAPITAL LETTERS

7.5.3. Blue Keys= punctuation, digits, small capital letters

8. Photography

8.1. Camera Obscura

8.1.1. An optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen

8.1.2. was a big dark room in the 1500's

8.1.2.1. became a small box in the 17th and 18th century

8.2. derived from the Greek terms light and writing

8.3. Joseph Niepce

8.3.1. created the first successful photograph in 1827

8.4. Louis Daquerre

8.4.1. invented the first practical photography system

8.4.1.1. The Daguerreotype

8.5. William Fox Talbot

8.5.1. invented the Calotype process

8.5.1.1. basis of our modern photographic process

8.6. Archer

8.6.1. invented the wet collodion process

8.7. Richard Maddox

8.7.1. created The Dry Plate Process

8.8. Eastman Kodak

8.8.1. Used gelatin as base of film

8.8.2. Established the Eastman Kodak company

8.8.2.1. Marketed the Brownie Camera

8.9. James Clerk Maxwell

8.9.1. took rhe first colored photo

8.10. Edwin Land

8.10.1. patented instant photography

8.10.1.1. picture could be taken and developed in one process

8.11. Muybridge

8.11.1. paved way for motion picture

8.12. zoopraxiscope

8.12.1. device used for motion picture

9. The Computer

9.1. Mark computers

9.1.1. used by navy gunnery and ballistic calculations

9.2. First commercial computer

9.2.1. Uniback

9.2.1.1. designed by John Preseper and John Mauckly

9.3. Douglas Engelbari

9.3.1. invented the computer mouse

9.3.1.1. to make pointing on the computer easier

9.4. ARPANET

9.4.1. First internet

9.4.1.1. used to protect the flow of information between military installations

9.5. Intel 4004

9.5.1. first single chip microprocessor

9.5.2. Floppy disk was first memory disk

9.5.2.1. Invented by IBM

9.6. Computers introduced in the mid 1970s

9.6.1. ScelbB, Marx-B, Altair, IBM5100, apple 1 and 2, TRS80, commodore PET

9.7. Bill Gates and Microsoft

9.7.1. introduced MS-DOS

9.7.1.1. The operating system that was packaged with the IBM PC

9.8. PC

9.8.1. Personal Computer

9.8.1.1. Apple introduces Lisa in 1883

9.8.1.1.1. First PC with GUI