History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. Cave Paintings 50,000 years ago

1.1. definition: a way to communicate visually

1.2. Lauscaux

1.2.1. located in France

1.3. three reasons they were created

1.3.1. story telling

1.3.2. religious or superstision

1.3.3. instructions

1.4. Altamira cave

1.4.1. located in Spain

1.4.2. discovered by Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola and his daughter Maria

1.5. were a form of graphic communications

1.6. Lauscaux 2

1.6.1. made by the government to satisfy the public and save Lauscaux

1.7. Chauvet Pont d’Arc

1.7.1. oldest known cave painting site

2. Cuneiform and the Sumerians

2.1. three things about the sumerians

2.1.1. they had a theocratic culture ruled by a priest king

2.1.2. they were skilled artisans

2.1.3. music was important to them

2.2. why was the cuneiform created?

2.2.1. to help keep track of the business creations

2.3. chose to write on clay tablets

2.3.1. how to make: wet the clay, form it into flat surfaces, use wedge shaped stylus made from reeds to make impressions into the clay surface, la them in the sun to dry and harden

2.4. series of pictographs

2.4.1. became more abstract over time

2.5. Cuneiform (first written language) created

2.6. Sumerians practiced agriculture because of the year-round climate

3. Hieroglyphics 6th Century B.C.

3.1. invading armies discovered pyramids, tombs, and temples

3.2. scholars believe Sumerian concept of expressing words in writing influences Egyptians to make Hieroglyphics

3.2.1. formal writing system with a combination of logographic and alphabetic elements a logogram is visual symbols representing ideas or objects

3.2.2. important to communicate because of religion and governent students, priests, and military leaders became scribes priests were scribes so they could read and write instructions on the walls and on papyrus for rituals

3.3. where does the word "heiroglyphics" come from? two greek words HIERO meaning sacred and GLYPHIC meaning engraving on writing

3.4. after the French invaded Egypt, they began building in Rosetta. They discovered a slab with inscriptions on it (now called the Rosetta Stone)

3.4.1. has three languages written on it : Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Demotic, Greek Jean Francois Champollion deciphered the hieroglyphics on the stone

3.4.2. it's now in The British Museum where it has been since 1802.

4. Phonetic Alphabet

4.1. various theories for the origin of the Phoenecian alphabet

4.1.1. some scholars believe it to be a direct variation of heiroglyphics, Cuneiform, or independent creation

4.1.2. letters start with consonants adaptation of letter forms in Greek alphabet two distinct letterings: rigid formal script for important manuscripts and official documents; quicker more informal style used for letters and routine types of ritin

4.1.3. one sign represents one spoken sound

4.1.4. the trade culture of Phoenician merchants spread the use of the alphabet into parts of Europe and North Africa first widespread script; used in multiple languages disintegrated the class divisions

4.1.5. seriff: finishing off strokes italy; with the carving of words into stone they added little hooks t tips of letters to prevent chisel from slipping baseline: line upon which most letters sit contributed to type design so they were in perfect rows descender: under the baseline

5. The Book

5.1. scrolls produced two ways

5.1.1. long piece of papyrus

5.1.2. separate sheets glued together

5.2. rolled two ways

5.2.1. wooden rollers on each end

5.2.2. rolled

5.3. codex: “block of wood” collection of hand written pages

5.3.1. advantages of codex versus scroll: compactness, sturdiness, and ease of reference; random access; flat at any page; more portable; easier to organize in libraries

5.4. parchment: substrate made from animal skin such as sheep, goats, and cows

5.4.1. made by: hair and fat removed, skin smoothed out, soaked in water, calcium. flour, salt added, layed out to dry

5.4.2. allowed books to last longer

5.5. "The Dark Ages"

5.5.1. the time period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance

5.6. illuminated manuscript

5.6.1. elaborate illustrations and ornamentation "illumination" refers to the borders, illustrations, and ornamentation added to each page of text

5.6.2. they were reserved for religious text because they were so laborious

5.6.3. eventually replaced by the printing press which changed the world

6. The Gutenberg Press

6.1. Johannes Gutenberg introduced modern book printing

6.1.1. father was a merchant and goldsmith metal topography (developed in China) hand carved from wood melt the metal at a low temperature, cast well in he die, and more durable to press; hard petal punch hammered into hand held mold

6.2. a hand press in which ink was rolled over the raised surface of movable hand set letters held with a wooden frame

6.2.1. used screw-type technology for pressing wine grapes and olive oil seeds

6.3. invention of oil based ink

6.4. How did the Gutenberg Press impact communication?

6.4.1. 1. perfected script and made it easier to read

6.4.2. 2. books were made more rapidly

6.4.3. 3. current information could be shared locally and around the world

6.4.4. 4. the cost decreased allowing more people to buy them

6.4.5. 5. demand grew. population became more literate

6.4.6. 6. people waned books written in their own language and a greater variety

6.4.7. 7. book trade began to flourish as well as industries such as papermaking, economies became stronger

6.4.8. 8. art and science began to flourish which led to the beginning of the Renaissance

6.5. 4 major printing proesses still utilized today

6.5.1. 1. relief printing

6.5.2. 2. intaglio

6.5.3. 3. porous

6.5.4. 4. lithography

7. The Linotype Machine

7.1. invented by Christopher Sholes

7.1.1. stenographers

7.1.2. Clephane tested the typewriter Clephane and associate approached Ottmar Mergenthaler to help with their typesetting machine casting type from metal matrix

7.2. allowed type to be set mechanically instead of by hand

7.3. produces entire line of type at once

7.4. made it possible for a small number of operators to set type for more pages on a daily basis

7.5. first linotype machine installed in New York

7.6. 90 characters, no shift, uppercase and lowercase letters were separate

7.6.1. black keys: lowercase letters

7.6.2. white keys: uppercase letters

7.6.3. blue keys: punctuation, digits, small capital letters and fixed width spaces

7.7. matrix: molds

7.8. slug: assembled line of type that is cast as a single piece

8. History of Computers

8.1. Konrad Zuse is credited with inventing he first freely programmable computer

8.2. Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper invented the Mark computer series

8.2.1. they were created for the navy and ballistic calculations

8.3. Univac was the first commercial computer

8.3.1. designed by John Preseper Eckert and John Mauchly

8.3.2. stands for: Universal Automatic Computer

8.4. IBM stands for: International Business Machines

8.4.1. developed the IBM 701 EDPM Computer

8.5. Fortran was the first high level programming language

8.5.1. stands for: The IBM Mathematical Formula Translating System

8.6. first computer game: Space War created by Steve Russel and MIT

8.7. Douglas Engelbart invented the mouse

8.7.1. he made a more user friendly tool

8.7.2. nicknamd the mouse because of the tail that connected it to the computer

8.8. first internet was called: ARPNET

8.8.1. developed to protect the flow of information between military installations by creating a network of geographically separated computers

8.9. memory disk: floppy disk (because of its flexibility)

8.10. Robert Metcalfe and Xerox developed the first ethernet

8.11. PC stands for personal computer

8.12. Apple introduced the Macintosh in 1984

9. History of Photography

9.1. 4th century camera obscura used for ways to observe light

9.1.1. dark chamber; optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen

9.1.2. 1500s: darkened room with convex lens inserted into on wall

9.1.3. 17 & 1800s: shrunk to the size of a portable box

9.2. came from the greek words for light and writing

9.3. first successful photograph by Sir John Hershel in 1872

9.4. Joseph Niepce inented the first practical photographic process

9.4.1. named Daguerreotype light-sensitive metal sheet which created a direct positive image; longer if dipped in salt

9.5. William Fox Talbot invented the Calotype process

9.5.1. subject was exposed onto a light sensitive paper producing a paper negative could be duplicated

9.6. Archer is credited with the invention of the Wet Collodion Process or Wet Plate Process

9.6.1. glass plates used for the negative; faster

9.6.2. Richard Maddox credited for dry process glass coated in gelatin colorless water-soluble glutinous protein obtained from animal tissue

9.7. photograpy