"Laughter Out of Place"

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"Laughter Out of Place" by Mind Map: "Laughter Out of Place"

1. Sexual Representation of women

1.1. Mulata (Mixed black and white)

1.1.1. Considered the embodiment of Brazilian culture

1.1.2. Exotic

1.1.3. Beautiful

1.1.4. Not overly hyper-sexualized

1.2. White

1.2.1. Still Represented as the dominant culture on television

1.3. Black

1.3.1. Holds a "jezebel" reputation

1.3.2. Still associated with slavery

1.3.3. Not exotic

1.3.4. Considered ugly

2. Research Details

2.1. Years Studied

2.1.1. 1992

2.1.2. 1995

2.2. Researcher

2.2.1. Donna M. Goldstein Cornell University Berkeley university

2.3. Reason for research

2.3.1. Dissertation

2.3.2. to get closer to the lives of people whom politics and economics impinged

3. Uses of Humor

3.1. Discontentment

3.2. Anger

3.3. Sadness

3.4. Survival mechanisim

3.5. Fustration

3.6. Aggression

3.7. Form of Power

3.8. Form of resistance

3.9. to Grieve for lost loved ones

3.10. use of humor for darker skinned girls who are unable to speak critically about sexulaity

3.11. Tragedy

3.11.1. Depicted on TV

3.11.2. Daily life Situations for lower class

3.12. Complaints

3.13. The telling of the robbery and rape story provided a way for sexuality, violence, and female victimization to be dealt with through humor.

3.14. The author realized that these stories, aside from their humorous twists and turns, also revealed a great deal of suffering that otherwise would have remained silenced.

4. Setting

4.1. Locations

4.1.1. Rio de Janeiro Second largest city Where young Gloria's family migrated to 1950's City of extreams Weathly Poor second most important port

4.1.2. Bom Jesus de Moreira Gloria's birthplace

4.1.3. Felicidade Eterna Where Gloria resides Community

4.1.4. Sao Paulo Most prosperous city

4.2. Society

4.2.1. Poverty Stricken

4.2.2. Urban

4.2.3. Uneducated

4.2.4. Generally Dark-Skin Afro-Brazilian Culture

4.2.5. Radically unequal

4.2.6. Racially divided

5. Gender/Family Roles

5.1. Females

5.1.1. Lower Class Peddlers Young women attempting to break tradtions Domestic Work lowest-paying Jobs Racial Extremely long days Heavy, Hard work Workers considered property

5.2. Males

5.2.1. Lower Class Unruly Gang life Criminals Attempts of resistance of Class

5.3. Children

5.3.1. Attend school

5.3.2. If they do poorly in school they find small jobs in hopes of becoming trained in a skill Cleaning Running errands in shops

6. Persons Reasearched

6.1. Gloria

6.1.1. Domestic worker Employer: Dona Beth 50-ish middle-class Lives in Zona Sul Has Daughter, Beth, who wants to be independent More caring/helpful than most employers

6.1.2. Born into a family of servants Extreme poverty

6.1.3. Single mother of 13-15 Children Ex-husband, Zezinho Deceased

6.2. Gloria's Children

6.2.1. Soneca Helps Gloria at Work Attempted Technical school Became Preganant

6.2.2. Zeca Deseased

6.2.3. Filomena and Boyfriend Adilson with infant son David works in charcoal factory to escape domestic work Thrown out of house by Gloria

6.2.4. Felix Does poorly in school

6.2.5. Tiago

6.2.6. Pedro Paulo Oldest son In Prison Sentenced to 15 Years for armed robbery 30 yrs old at time of research gang member Felt he was cheated out of childhood extremely tall and muscular Expecting father

6.2.7. Anita

6.3. Gloria's "adopted children"

6.3.1. Lucas

6.3.2. Marta

6.3.3. Claudia

6.3.4. Alexandro

6.3.5. Roberto

6.3.6. Plus 3 Children of her former lover's children

6.4. Others:

6.4.1. Eliana Daughter: Elzineia Dark Skinned Dark skinned Grandson: Fausto, Mixed race Eliana gets mistaken as his domestic care taker due to skin color difference Gloria's BFF

7. Carnival

7.1. Upper & Lower classes unite in festivities

7.2. Last opportunity of indulgence before Lent

7.3. Four day, Five Night Festival

7.4. Gaps between classes forgotten

7.5. Sexuality expressed freely

7.6. Display of Brazilian culture

8. History of Brazil

8.1. Founded under Portugal 1500 by Pedro Alvares Cabral

8.2. Before European invasion, 2-4 Million Native Americans Inhabited Brazil

8.3. Agricultural Economy

8.3.1. Cattle

8.3.2. Coffee

8.3.3. Gold

8.3.4. Diamonds

8.3.5. Sugar

8.4. Economy in decline

8.5. Slavery

8.5.1. Biggest Slave importer over 3 centuries 3.5 million African Slaves imported

8.5.2. Abolition Sexual favors from female servants expected Nurturing services still expected

9. Classes

9.1. Elite/Upper Class

9.1.1. Expected to have servants

9.1.2. Has the MOST power Economically Politically

9.1.3. Designated public spaces

9.1.4. Wealthy

9.1.5. No value placed on learning domestic work

9.2. Middle-Class

9.2.1. Expected to have servants A class marker Status indicator

9.2.2. Income Varies

9.2.3. Lower-Middle class fear slipping into Low Class

9.2.4. Upper-Middle class has more power Economically Politically

9.3. Lower Class

9.3.1. Live in shacks

9.3.2. Ambiguous Postiion

9.3.3. Have Costly Transportation fees to/from work

9.3.4. Majority Afro-Brazilian

9.3.5. Domestic Servents

9.3.6. Children expected to help in household

9.3.7. Main focus is survival

10. Violence

10.1. walls built to protect middle and upper class

10.2. Gangs a problem for all classes in Brazil

10.3. 200,000 children live on street & are in danger

10.3.1. Could be killed

10.3.2. Could easily be recruited into gangs

10.4. organization of death squads

10.5. Lower class parents stress importance of children choosing honest work rather than gangs

10.6. Violence in Family

10.6.1. Harsh punishments for misbehavior Ex: Gloria forced son Lucas to eat his own excrement Gloria banned children from the home as easily as adopted them Child beating common in most families

10.7. Associated with drugs, sexual abuse, rape, beatings and robbery

10.8. violence and murder carried out by both bandits and police

11. Race

11.1. Racism

11.1.1. no civil rights movement

11.1.2. uncomfortable subject in Brazil

11.1.3. African traditions absorbed as Brazilian, therefore de-Africanized

11.1.4. Dark skin & African racial features still associated with slavery & considered ugly

11.1.5. Words describe array of color Skin Black Mixed or Brown Dark Light Closed Freckled White

11.1.6. People of lighter skin believed to have better opportunities in life

11.2. Dichotomy of Black and white

11.3. COROA

11.3.1. Lighter skinned male of wealth and power

11.3.2. Term in Brazilin culture

11.3.3. Dark skinned low class women see seducing a Coroa as a way of social mobility

12. Gangs

12.1. Fueled by drug consumption of upper classes & international drug trade

12.2. Functions

12.2.1. Drug trafficking

12.2.2. provide a place of belonging to it's members

12.2.3. form of resistance against economy & government

12.2.4. Provide housing and cash for families in emergency

12.2.5. Provide employment for local youth

12.2.6. Essentially a justice system for their lower class community utilized revenge

12.3. Considered important local figures

13. Sexuality in Brazil

13.1. Sexual Teasing is common in Feliciadae Eterna

13.2. Brazilians have an open, permissive approach to sexuality.

13.3. Young teens have sexual relations with older men

13.4. Double Standards

13.4.1. Male infidelity is not liked within the culture, but it is considered a norm

13.4.2. Women are expected to be virgins when the consummate the relationship with their male counterpart

13.5. Homosexulaity

13.5.1. Upper Class Connecting sexual and social identity with choice

13.5.2. Lower Class

13.6. Metaphors about food and eating were often used to express ideas about sexuality.

14. Carnivalization of Desire

14.1. Bodily liberation

14.2. Sexual Dancing

14.3. Desire or lust for Buttocks

14.4. Brazil's self-promoted image is an eroticized "tropical paradise"

15. Rape

15.1. Little Protection for women

15.2. Abortion

15.3. Difficult to prosecute

15.4. Women fail to report due to reputation

15.4.1. maintaining "Virginity" is stressed

15.5. Abuse