Causes of the Civil War

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Causes of the Civil War by Mind Map: Causes of the Civil War

1. The Economy Of The North And South

1.1. 1800-1860

1.2. The Economy Of The North And South

1.3. The north was industrial with factory's and paid workers. The south was agricultural with large farms and small farms. Slave labor was used in the south.

2. Missouri Compromise

2.1. 1820

2.2. Missouri Compromise

2.3. When America began moving west the issue of whether or not slavery should be allowed in the new states forming out west became an issue. The first state in which this became an issue was Missouri. It's addition to the United States threatened to upset e balance between free states and slave states. In 1820, Senator Henry Clay persuaded congress to approve the Missouri Compromise. The Missouri Compromise stated, Maine was admitted as a free state. Missouri was admitted as a slave state. Louisiana Territory north of Missouri's southern border was free. Southern slave owners gained the right to pursue escaped fugitives into free regions.

3. Wilmot Proviso

3.1. 1848

3.2. Wilmot Proviso

3.3. Since the Missouri Compromise did not apply to the large territory gained from Mexico in 1848, Representative David Wilmot of Pennsylvania proposed that congress ban slavery in all territory that might become part of the United States as a result of the Mexican-American war. The proposal passed in the house but failed in the senate.

4. Free-Soil Party

4.1. 1848

4.2. Free-Soil Party

4.3. In the election of 1848, both the Whigs party and Democratic Party hoped to win by not taking a stand on the issue of slavery. Anti-slavery Whigs and democrats joined forces to create a new political party. It called for the territory gained in the Mexican-American war to be "free soil", a place where slavery was banned.

5. Election of Zachary Taylor

5.1. 1848

5.2. Election of Zachary Taylor

5.3. In the election of 1848 the controversy over the Wilmot proviso led to the development of the free soil party. Democrats nominated senator Lewis Cass of Michigan, the Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor who won the election.

6. The Compromise of 1850

6.1. 1850

6.2. The Compromise of 1850

6.3. Is happened during the time of the California gold rush. California was admitted as a free state. Slave trade was banned in the nations capital. Congress declared that it would not regulate the slave trade between slave states.

7. The Fugitive Slave Act

7.1. 1850

7.2. The Fugitive Slave Act

7.3. Allowed special government officials to arrest any person accused of being a runaway slave. Suspects had no right to trial to prove that they had been falsely accused. All it took was a slaveholder or any white witness to swear that the suspect was a slaveholder's property. The law also required northern citizens to help capture accused runaways if authorities requested assistance.

8. Uncle Tom's Cabin

8.1. 1852

8.2. Uncle Tom's Cabin

8.3. Written by Harriet Beecher in 1852, it was a novel about kindly Uncle Tom, an enslaved man who is abused by the cruel Simon Legree. The book became a best seller in the north. It shocked thousands of people who had been unconcerned with slavery before reading the book. The book caused people to view slavery as a human, moral problem and not just a political issue. White southerners were outraged.

9. The Kansas-Nebraska Act

9.1. 1854

9.2. The Kansas-Nebraska Act

9.3. Senator Stephen Douglas pushed through the act in 1854 which led the nation closer to war. He wanted to see a railroad built from Illinois through the Nebraska territory to the Pacific coast. He suggested creating two new territories the Kansas territory and the Nebraska territory. Both were above the Missouri compromise line and would become free states which upset the territory. To win southern support, he suggested that the issue of slavery be resolved by popular sovereignty. This would undo the Missouri compromise.

10. Bleeding Kansas

10.1. 1856

10.2. Bleeding Kansas

10.3. Both anti slavery and pro slavery settlers flooded to Kansas to try and win the majority. Thousands of people from Missouri entered Kansas in march of 1855 to vote illegally in the election of a territorial legislature. Kansas had 3,000 voters but almost 8,000 people voted. Of the 39 people (legislatures ) elected, all but 3 supported slavery. Anti slavery settlers refused to accept the results and held another second election.

11. Bloodshed in The Senate (Senator Charles Summer Attacked)

11.1. 1856

11.2. Bloodshed in The Senate (Senator Charles Summer Attacked)

11.3. Charles summer of Massachusetts was the leading abolitionist senator and made fiery speeches denouncing the proslavery legislature in Kansas. In one of his speeches he singled out Andrew butler who was an elderly senator from south California who was not present when he gave his speech.

12. Republican Party

12.1. 1854

12.2. Republican Party

12.3. The Whig party split in 1854 and many northern Whigs formed a new political party called the Republican Party. Their main goal was to stop the spread of slavery into the western territories. Their anti slavery stand attracted many northern democrats and free-soil members. The party quickly became very powerful.

13. Election of 1856

13.1. 1856

13.2. Election of 1856

13.3. First republican candidate John c. Fremont (army officer who help win California's independence in the Mexican-American war ) waged a strong antislavery campaign and won 11 of the 16 free states. Democrat James Buchanan won the election.

14. Dred Scott vs. Sanford Case

14.1. 1857

14.2. Dred Scott vs. Sanford Case

14.3. Dred Scott was an enslaved person who had once been owned by a U.S Army doctor. They had lived in Illinois and Wisconsin territory for a short time where slavery was illegal. He tried to sue his owner but the case was dismissed but slaves had no right to sue people because slaves were property.

15. The Lincoln and Douglas Debates

15.1. 1858

15.2. The Lincoln and Douglas Debates

15.3. Lincoln and Douglas were political and personal rivals because they did not like each other. Mostly because both of them dated Mary Todd and she married Lincoln. Lincoln challenged Douglas to an public debate. And it happened. Thousands of people gathered to see it. Douglas supported popular sovereignty. Lincoln predicted slavery would die out.

16. John Brown Attacks Harper's Ferry

16.1. 1859

16.2. John Brown Attacks Harper's Ferry

16.3. John brown was driven out of Kansas after the pottawatomie creek massacre and returned to New England. He had an Ida to free all the slaves in the south. In 1859 brown and his pele attacked and they were unsuccessful ten of his people were killed. But John brown was still considered a hero in the north.

17. Political Party's Divide

17.1. 1860

17.2. Political Party's Divide

17.3. The Democratic Party split into two parties during the election of 1860 because northern democrats refused to support slavery in the territories. Some southerners wanted to fix e problems between the north and south and formed the constitutional union party. They wanted to protect slavery and keep the nation together.

18. Southern States Secede

18.1. 1860

18.2. Southern States Secede

18.3. Lincoln's election made e south feel that they no longer had a voice in the national government. They believed that the president and congress were against their interests, especially slavery. South Carolina seceded first when the news of Lincoln's election reached the state.

19. The Confederate States of America

19.1. 1861

19.2. The Confederate States of America

19.3. In February of 1861, the leaders of the seven states that left the union met in Montgomery,Alabama to form a new nation that they called the confederate states of America. By the time Lincoln took office in march, they had written a constitution and named former Senator Jefferson Davis as president.

20. The Crittenden Plan

20.1. 1861

20.2. The Crittenden Plan

20.3. A plan developed by senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky to compromise with the south one last time. It was presented to congress in late February, 1861 while the south was forming its new government but it did not pass.

21. Election of 1860

21.1. 1860

21.2. Election of 1860

21.3. Republicans chose Abraham Lincoln to run for president in 1860. Norman democrats nominated Stephen Douglas as their candidate. Southern democrats chose Vice President John Breckinridge of Kentucky. The constitutional union nominated John bell of Tennessee. The election showed just had fragmented the nation had become. Lincoln received 40% of the popular vote but received enough electoral votes to win the election and become president.