Causes of Civil War Imani Canada

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Causes of Civil War Imani Canada by Mind Map: Causes of Civil War Imani Canada

1. In the election of 1848 both the Whigs party and the Democratic party hoped to win bu not taking a stand on the issue of slave.Antislavery Whigs and democrats joined forces to create a new political free-soil party.It called for the territory gained in the mexcian-american war to be free soil, a place where slavery was banned.

2. Missouri Comprimse

2.1. 1820

2.2. Missouri Comprimse

2.3. As American began moving west the issues of weather not they should be allowed in the new states forming out west became a issue.The first state in which this became an issues was Missouri its addition to the united sates threatened to upset the balance between free states and slave states .In 1820 , senator Henry Clay persuade congress to approve Missouri compromise. The Missouri was admitted as as slave state and Maine was admitted as a free states. Louisiana territory north of Missouri southern border was free southern slave owners gained the right to purse escape fugitive into free regions

3. Wilmot Proviso

3.1. 1848

3.2. Wilmot Proviso

3.3. since the Missouri compromise did not apply to the large territory gained from mexico in 1848 , Representative David wilmot of Pennsylvania proposed that congress ban slavery in all territory that might become part of the united states as a result of the Mexcian american war. the proposal passed in the house but failed in the senate.

4. Free -Soil party

4.1. 1848

4.2. Free-soil party

4.3. In the election of 1848,the controversy over the Wilmont led to the development of the free-soil-party.Democrats nominated Senator Lewis of Michigan,the Whigs nominated Van and the the free-soil-party nominated former Democratic Presidents Martin Senator Cass suggested that the people in each territory should decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery ,Zachary Taylor,a hero of the Mexican-American Zachery won the election.

5. Election of Zachary Taylor

5.1. 1848

5.2. Election of Zachary Taylor

5.3. In the election of 1848,the controversy over the Wilmot led to the development of the the free-soil party.Democratic nominated senator Lewis of Michigan, the Whigs nominated Van and the free-soil party nominated former democratic president Martion Senator Cass suggested that the people in each new territory should decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery.Zachary Taylor, a hero of the Mexcian American Zachery won the election.

6. The compromise of 1850

6.1. 1850

6.2. The Compromise of 1850

6.3. Gold was found in California and thousands moved to the area.Soon the territory had enough people to be admitted as a state.This angered the south and they threatened to secede (leave the union).The compromise was proposed by senator Henry of Kentucky in January,1850.He hoped this compromise would end the debate over north and south forever.This proposal produced one of the greatest debates in american political history. President Taylor opposed the compromise but died and the new president Millard Fillmore supported it.Congress passes five series of bills in September ,1850 that become known as the compromise of California was admitted as the union free state.2.slave trade was banned in the national capital .3, Congress declared that if could not regulate the slave trade between slave states.4 Popular sovereignty(the people would vote)would be used to determine the issue of slavery in the rest of Mexican Cession.5.The south received a new fugitive slave law.

7. The fugitive slave act

7.1. 1850

7.2. The fugitive slave act

7.3. Allowed special government official to arrest any person accused of being runaway slave.Suspects had no right to trail to prove that they has been falsely accused.All it was a slave holder or any white witness to swear that the suspect was a slave holder property The law also required northern citizens to help capture accused runaway if authorities requested assistance.

8. Uncle Tom's Cabin

8.1. 1852

8.2. Uncle Toms Cabin

8.3. Written by Stowe in 1852,it was a novel about kindly Uncle Tom,an enslaved man who is abused by the cruel Simon Legree.The book became the best seller in the North.It shocked thousands of people who had been unconcerned with slavery before reading the book.The book caused people to view slavery as a human,moral problem and not just a political issue. White Southerns were outrage.

9. The Kansas ~Nebraska Act

9.1. 1854

9.2. The Kansas-Nebraska Act

9.3. Senator Stephen pushed through the Act in 1854 which led the nation closer to war. He wanted to see a railroad built from Illinois through the Nebraska territory to the Pacific Coast.He suggested creating 2 territories the Kansas and Nebraska Territory. Both were above the Missouri Compromise Line and would become free states which upset the Northern. To win southern support, he suggested that the issue of slavery be resolved by sovereignty.This would undo the Missouri Compromise.

10. Bloodshed in the senate

10.1. 1855

10.2. Bloodshed in the senate

10.3. Charles Summer of Massachusetts was leading the abolitionist senator and made fiery speeches denouncing the pro-slavery legislature in Kansas.In one of his speeches he singled out Andrew butler who was an elderly senator from south Carolina who was not present when he gave his speech.A few days later his nephew ,Congressman Preston Brooks ,marched into the senate chamber and beat summer with a heavy cane until he fell to the floor bloody and unconscious.Summer never really recovered from his injuries.

11. Republican Party

11.1. 1854

11.2. Republican Party

11.3. The Whig party split in 1854 and many northern Whigs formed a new political party called the Republican.Their main goal was to stop the spread of slavery into the westerns territories.Their antislavery stand attracted many northern Democrats and Free-Soil members.The party quickly became very powerful.In the first congressional election held just a few months after the party was created,105 of 245 candidates were elected to the House of Representatives.Democrats also lost control of two northern state legislature Two years later the party ran its first candidate for president,John C.Fremont.

12. Election of 1856

12.1. 1856

12.2. Election of 1856

12.3. First Republican candidate John C.Fremont (army officer who help win California's independence in the Mexcian-American War) waged a strong antislavery campaign and won 11 of the 16 free states.Democrat James Buchanan won the election.

13. Dred Scott vs.sanford case

13.1. 1857

13.2. Dred Scott vs.Sanford Case

13.3. Dred Scott was an enslaved person who had once been owned by a U.S Army doctor.They had lived in Illinois and Wisconsin for a short time where slavery was illegal.They settled in Missouri.With the help of an antislavery lawyer ,Scott sued for his freedom because he argued that he was free because he has lived where slavery was illegal. The case reached the Supreme Court.The supreme Court delivered its verdict in the case on March of 1857,three days after President Buchanan took office.Chief Justice Roger B.Taney wrote the decision for the Court.Scott was not a free man for 2 reasons:Scott had no right to sue in federal court because African-American was not Citizens;2.merely living in free territory does not make an enslaved person free.Slaves were property and property rights were protected by the United States constitution.The ruling also said that congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in any territory. Thus,the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.Southerns were happy because slavery was legal in all territories. Northerners were upset because now slavery could spread through the west

14. The Lincoln and Douglas

14.1. 1858

14.2. The Lincoln and Douglas

14.3. Lincoln was chosen at the Whig candidate for Senate against Senator Stephen in 1858. Lincoln and Douglas were political and personals rivals(both had dated Mary Todd and she married Lincoln) Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of public debate. Thousands gathered to hear them speak. Newspaper reported that what each man said throughout the nation .Douglas defended popular sovereignty and said each state had the right to decide against slavery.He painted Lincoln as a dangerous abolitionist who wanted equality for African Americans Americans. Lincoln took a stand against the slavery of slavery>he predicted that slavery would die out on its own but in the meantime Americans had an obligation to keep it out the western territories.Douglas won the elections but Lincoln was now know throughout the nation.

15. John brown attacks harper's ferry

15.1. 1859

15.2. John Brown attacks Harper's ferry

15.3. John Brown was driven out of Kansas after the Pottawatomie Creek Massacre and returned to New England.He began a plot to free people in the south that were enslaved. In 1859,Brown and a small group of supporters attacked the town of Harper's Ferry of, Virginia.His goal was to take control of the seize guns that the U.S Army had stored there. He though that enslaved African Americans would support him.He would give them weapons and led a revolt .He gained control of the guns but troops commanded by Colonel Robert E surrounded Browns force before they could escape.Ten of Browns followers were killed.Born was wounded and captured.At his own trail,he sat quietly as the court founded him guilty of murder and treason.He was guilty in Virginia on December 2,185.Many people in the north considered him a hero Southerns were shocked that Northerner though this about a person who tried to led a revolt against them.

16. Election of 1860

16.1. 1860

16.2. Election of 1860

16.3. Republicans chose Abraham to run for president in 1860.Northern Democrats Stephen D as their candidate.Southerns chose Vice President John Breckenridge of Kentucky. The Constitutional Union nominated John Bell of Tennessee.The election showed just had fragmented the nation had become . Lincoln won every free state Breckenridge won all slave states except four.Bell won Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia.Douglas won Missouri. Lincoln received 40% of the popular vote but received enough electoral votes to win the election and become president.

17. Southern states secede

17.1. 1860

17.2. Southern States Secede

17.3. Lincoln's election made the South feel that they no longer had a voice in the nation government..They believed that the president and congress were against their interest, especially slavery.South Carolina seceded (left the united states) first when news of Lincoln election reached the state.They called for a special convention. On December 20,1860 the convention passed a declaration that "the union now subsisting between South Carolina and the other states,under the name of the united states of american is hereby dissolved more sates followed South Carolina out of the Union.

18. The confederate states of America

18.1. 1861

18.2. The confederate sates of America

18.3. In February of 1861,the leaders of the seven states that left the Union met in Montgomery, Alabama to form a new nation that they called the Confederate States of America.By the time Lincoln, they had had written a Constitution and named former Senator Jefferson Davis as president.

19. The critter den plan

19.1. 1861

19.2. The Crittenden Plan

19.3. A plan developed by Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky to compromise with the south one last time.It was presented to Congress in late February,1861 while the south was forming its new government but it did not pass.

20. The economy of the north and south

20.1. 1800

20.2. The economy of the north and south

20.3. The North was industrial with factories and paid labor.The South was agricultural with large plantation and small farms. Slave labor was used in the south.

21. Bleeding Kansas

21.1. 1855

21.2. Bleeding Kansas

21.3. Both pro slavery and anti slavery settlers flooded to Kansas to try and win the majority.Thousands of people from Missouri entered Kansas in March of 1855 to vote illegally in the election of a territorial legislature. Kansas had 3,000 voters but almost 8,000 people voted.Of the 39 people (legislators) elected,all but 3 supported slavery.Antislavery settlers refused to accept the result and held another election.Kansas now had 2 government. Violence broke out.In April ,a pro slavery sheriff was shot when he tried to arrest some antislavery settlers in the town Lawrence.He returned the next month with 800 men and attack the town.Three days later John Brown ,an antislavery settler from Connecticut let seven men to a pro-slavery settlement near pottawat Creek and murdered five proslvaery mean and boys .This started wide spreading fighting in Kansas.