Psychosocial Development of Adolescence

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Psychosocial Development of Adolescence by Mind Map: Psychosocial Development of Adolescence

1. Identity

1.1. Biological, cognitive and social role changes that occur during adolescence impact a person's ability to engage in self examination and therefore identity development

1.2. Researchers categorize identity development by changes in 1)self-conceptions, 2) self-esteem, and 3) sense of identity

1.2.1. Self Conceptions During adolescence, self conceptions become increasinly complex, abstract and psychological Although this can be unsettling initially, it ultimately provides for a more sophisticated and accurate view of themselves. There are 5 personality dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openess to experience Long term studies have shown strong links between early termperment and adolescent personality and stability in basic personality traits over time.

1.2.2. Self Esteem Contrary to popular belief, for most individuals, global self-esteem is quite stable during adolescence and increases slightly. During early adolescence there may be periods of heightened self consciousness, and periods of fluctuation Generally males and black adolescents have higher self esteem than females or other ethnic groups. Across all groups, high self esteem is related to parental approval, peer support and success in school.

1.2.3. Identity Crises According to erikson, the major psychosocial issue of adolescence revolves around the identity crises - coming to terms with who one is and where one is headed. To resolve the identity crisis, the young person needs time out from excessive responsibilities - a psychosocial moratorium. The three most common problems in resolving the identity crises are identity diffusion, identity foreclosure and negative identity Ethnic Identity The process of ethnic identity development follows the process of identity development in general, with an unquestioning view of the self being displaced or upset by an event that provokes a period of exploration. Positive mental health amonth ethnic minority adolescents is associated with having a strong, positive ethnic identity and an awareness of the potential for discrimination, but not with outright rejection of the mainstream culture. Gender role development Although individuals grow more flexible in the way they think about gender roles, they may feel strong pressure to adhere to stereotypical gender roles. The extent by which roles change during adolescence is influenced by many factors, including birth order, the presence and sex of older or younger siblings, and their parents attitudes. In general, among both males and felames, many traits labeled as masculine as associated in adolescence with better adjustment and greater peer acceptance. As a result, androgynous females and masculine males report higher self esteem than their peers do.

2. Autonomy

2.1. Autonomy is especially important during adolescence, due to the number of changes during the period

2.2. 3 Types of autonomy - 1) Emotional (feeling independent), 2) Behavioral (acting independent) and 3) Cognitive autonomy (thinking independently)

2.2.1. Emotional Autonomy Research indicates growth of emotional autonomy is less turbulent during adolescence than stereotypes suggest One of the first signs of individualization is the de-idealization of his or her parents Healthy individualization is fostered by close, not distant, family relationships, with adolescents being encouraged to assert their individuality. Adolescents who grow up in authoritarian homes, in which their parents are both accepting and tolerant of the young person's individuality enjoy many psychological advantages over their peers, including a more fully developed sense of emotional autonomy.

2.2.2. Behavioral Autonomy As individuals mature, they become better able to weigh advice of individuals with different degrees of expertise, and to use this information in making independent decisions. One controversy is when does an adolescent's decision making ability develop to where they are mature enough to warrant treatment as adults under the law? Susceptibility to peer pressure is high during early adolescences, but declines during high school years. Adolescents whose parents are extremely authoritarian or extremely permissive are the most easily influenced by their peers, especially in antisocial contexts.

2.2.3. Cognitive Autonomy According to Kohlberg's theory, late adolescence is a time of potential shifting from a morality that defines right and wrong in terms of society's rules to one that defines it from the individuals own basic moral principles. Adolescent's moral behavior does not always match their moral reasoning partially because contextual factor's will influence how the adolescent behaves in the real world. The way individuals think about prosocial behaviors becomes more complex during adolescence, but there is no evidence that individuals engage in more prosocial behavior. Changes in individual's religious and political thinking during adolescence reflects the growing cognitive autonomy. This type of thinking becomes more abstract and more independent. Religious involvement during adolescence lowers risk for potential problem behaviors, but that is primarily due to the fact that it places an individual in a peer group of other well behaved adolescents.

3. Intimacy

3.1. Intimacy refers to relationships characterized by self-disclosure, trust and concern.

3.2. The development of intimacy is also stimulated by cognitive changes, which allow for more sophisticated understandings of relationships.

3.3. Intimate relationships are facilitated by social changes of the period, which provide for more opportunities for adolescents to be alone with each other.

3.4. In Sullivan's view, the main challenge of adolescence is to integrate an already established need for intimacy with the emerging need for sexual contact in a way the does not engender excessive anxiety.

3.5. Attachment theory now dominates the field of intimacy relationships in adolescence.Individuals who enjoyed a secure attachment to their caregiver during infancy develop healthier and more secure models for relationships as they grow older.

3.5.1. There is also evidence that interpersonal development is cumulative. Positive experiences in early family relationships contribute to social competence, which facilitates the development of intimate relationships with peers and romantic partners.

3.5.2. With development, adolescents place more emphasis on trust and loyalty as defining features of friendship, and become more responsive to their friends' needs.

3.5.3. Sex differences in the expression of intimacy is pronounced. Male friendships contain intimacy, but intimacy is a much more conscious concern for girls than it is for boys, in part because of sex differences in the way they are socialized.

3.5.4. New types of relationships are added to the adolescents social work without replacing previous ones. Many adolescents have platonic friendships with other sex peers. These other sex friendships set the stage for the emergence of romantic relationships later on. Boys may profit psychologically from other sex friendships more than girls. Social activities with the other sex begin in early adolescence with group activities that bring males and females together, proceed to casual dating, and later progresses to serious involvement with a steady romantic partner. Although early intense dating appears to have adverse effects on adolescents mental health, a moderate degree of dating after roughly age 15 is associated with positive development Adolescents that have supportive and satisfying relationships at home are more likely to have high quality friendships and romantic relationships. Conversely, adolescents who have been exposed to high levels of conflict or violence in their family are more likely to experience violence in their own dating relationships.