Theories

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Theories by Mind Map: Theories

1. Technology Theories

1.1. Media Ecology

1.1.1. About

1.1.1.1. Looks at how the media influences human behaviour, perceptions and beliefs

1.1.1.2. Media influences society

1.1.1.3. Hot Media

1.1.1.3.1. uses one single sense in high definition

1.1.1.4. Cold Media

1.1.1.4.1. Uses many senses and his high in participation

1.2. Social Construction of Technology (SCOT)

1.2.1. About

1.2.1.1. Humans influence technology instead of technology influencing humans

1.2.1.2. As society advances, so does technology

1.2.1.3. Society is always looking for easier more efficient ways of doing things which is essentially the "Bicycle Example"

2. Learning Theories

2.1. Constructivist

2.1.1. About

2.1.1.1. By actively interacting with the environment students are able to build connections and learn

2.1.1.2. Students start with a complex problem and from working through the problem, learn the basic skills

2.1.1.3. Constructs knowledge from one's own experiences

2.1.1.4. It is student-directed with the teacher facilitating the learning

2.1.1.5. Zone of Proximal Development

2.1.1.5.1. Working just outside of the student's realm of knowledge so that there is a challenge

2.1.2. Positives in Education

2.1.2.1. Challenges students to use discovery approach

2.1.2.1.1. Students are provided with a general question or problem and are required to experiment to find the solution

2.1.2.2. Students are in control of their own learning

2.1.2.2.1. Puts more responsibility on students to stay caught up and participate in the classroom

2.1.2.3. Provide a more hands on approach to learning

2.1.3. Negatives in Education

2.1.3.1. It is very time consuming

2.1.3.1.1. Discovery learning takes a long time due to the fact students need time to experiment and come to a conclusion

2.1.3.2. Assessment is more challenging

2.2. Connectivist

2.2.1. About

2.2.1.1. Learning is the process of forming connections and constructing networks

2.2.1.2. It is more important to understand how to navigate your networks to find information instead of knowing the information

2.2.1.3. Allows large capacities of information to be known

2.2.2. Positives in Education

2.2.2.1. Information is current

2.2.2.2. There is large volumes of information available

2.2.3. Negatives

2.2.3.1. Knowing how to access information is more important than actually knowing the information

2.2.3.1.1. Is there a need to learn to spell if we can simply use spell check or learn to add if we can just use a calculator?

2.2.3.2. It is hard to assess

2.2.3.2.1. How do you assess social networks?

2.3. Cognivist

2.3.1. About

2.3.1.1. Children develop schemas and frameworks of the world around them

2.3.1.1.1. Schemas are constantly changing as children encounter new information and try to make sense

2.3.1.2. Believe that the mind is like a computer and children need to learn mechanisms of retaining and recalling information from their memory

2.3.1.2.1. There is long term memory where information is stored forever

2.3.1.2.2. There is working memory where you are able to hold chunks of information for a short period of time before it is either transferred to long term memory or forgotten

2.3.1.3. Scaffolding

2.3.1.3.1. The ideas that you support learners as they gain new knowledge and work from the basics to the more complex

2.3.1.4. Cognitive Load Theory

2.3.1.4.1. Extraneous Cognitive Load

2.3.1.4.2. Intrinsic Cognitive Load

2.3.1.4.3. Germane Cognitive Load

2.3.2. Positives in Education

2.3.2.1. Builds on the prior knowledge of students instead of thinking they are blank slates

2.3.2.2. Emphasizes connections in learning through the development of frameworks and schemas

2.3.2.3. Scaffolding provides support to students learning more challenging information

2.3.3. Negatives

2.3.3.1. ignores the psychomotor and affective domain of the student

2.3.3.1.1. Ignores many different multiple intelligences ex. Body Kinetic

2.3.3.2. Very focused on students retaining information in their long term memory which leads to memorization not understanding

2.4. Behaviorist

2.4.1. About

2.4.1.1. Uses Operant Conditioning

2.4.1.2. Rewards are given for desirable behaviour and punishments are given for undesirable behaviour

2.4.1.3. Teachers that operate under this theory use direct instruction

2.4.1.4. Repetition is important in this theory to develop the desired behaviour

2.4.1.5. Usually provides students with step by step instructions they have to follow in order to achieve the goal

2.4.1.6. Has the ideas that children's minds are like blank slates

2.4.1.6.1. Children have no previous knowledge and are like a blank piece of paper

2.4.2. Positives in Education

2.4.2.1. Due to the repeated exposure to tasks, students are able to practice the skill a lot, which is beneficial in math

2.4.3. Negatives in Education

2.4.3.1. The students are required to do repetitive tasks until to complete the task to the teachers standards

2.4.3.2. Rewards are used for showing the desired behaviour which can cause the student to become extrinsically motivated

2.4.3.3. Students are required to learn what the teacher tells them instead of learning by discovery

2.4.3.4. Does not connect learning to prior knowledge because children are seen as having "blank slate" minds

2.4.3.4.1. This causes learning to not be meaningful

3. TPACK

3.1. Three types of knowledge teachers must have

3.1.1. Content Knowledge

3.1.1.1. Knowing the material you are teaching so that you are prepared to answer question and fully explain concepts

3.1.2. Pedagogical Knowledge

3.1.2.1. The knowledge about how students learn and what are effective ways to teach specific lessons

3.1.3. Knowledge of Technology

3.1.3.1. Knowing effective ways to bring technology into the classroom so it is an effective learning tool not a distraction

3.2. In a Venn diagram, the three types of knowledge are their own circle and where all three circles overlap it the optimum place to teach out of

3.2.1. Overlaps of the types of knowledge

3.2.1.1. Pedagogical Content Knowledge

3.2.1.1.1. This is the knowledge of how to effectively teach about a particular subject. As a teacher you know what techniques to use to make sure students understand as well as knowing the material you are teaching

3.2.1.2. Technological Content Knowledge

3.2.1.2.1. The knowledge on how to use technology to emphasize a topic you are teaching. For example using videos to show students the life cycle of a plant in fast motion

3.2.1.3. Technological Pedagogical Knowledge

3.2.1.3.1. This is the knowledge of how to use technology in the classroom in the most effective way as to maximize learning

3.2.1.4. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

3.2.1.4.1. This is the knowledge that teachers ideally want to have

3.2.1.4.2. It is the knowledge of what you are teaching and how to effectively teach it with the use of technology

3.2.1.4.3. It takes a lot of work to teach from this area and it does not always happen that you can due to resources available

4. Philosophy of Teachnology

4.1. How technology is infused into classrooms and lessons

4.2. Teaching students how to utilize technology in the classroom is important because we are in a society that is rapidly embracing technology

4.3. Using technology in the classroom heightens the engagement of students in the classroom because it is a lot more stimulating than a textbook

4.4. It is the personal teaching philosophy of the teacher but has technology built into it