Theories and Frameworks

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Theories and Frameworks by Mind Map: Theories and Frameworks

1. Social Construction of Technology (SCOT): A technology theory

1.1. Basic Principles

1.1.1. Humans shape technology (EDIT 202, 2013).

1.1.2. As humans we first must understand how the technology will fit into society before we determine how the technology will be used (Wikipedia, 2012).

1.1.3. Allows one to analyze why certain technologies succeed or fail (Wikipedia, 2012).

1.2. Implications for education

1.2.1. If you were using the theory of SCOT in an educational setting an appropriate application of this theory would be to bring in many different types of technology and let the students and educators experiment with it. By interacting with the technologies they will be determined a success or a failure. The students and the educators will pick the technologies that assist in education delivery and then those are the technologies that will be further developed for educational purposes.

1.3. Connections

1.3.1. SCOT links to the constructivist learning theory because both theories look at how society effects an outcome be it either technology or learning (EDIT 202, 2013).

2. Media Ecology: A technology theory

2.1. Basic Principles

2.1.1. Technology/ media shapes who and what humans become and influences how society develops (EDIT 202, 2013).

2.1.2. There is no one definite definition of media ecology however when the term is dissected it means the study of media environments (Media Ecology Association, 2013).

2.1.3. Includes all media technology from the radio to books to the internet (Media Ecology Association, 2013).

2.2. Implications for education

2.2.1. As new technologies are introduced into society the way we teach and the way we learn will have to change with the emerging technologies. Education has been able to grow from the slates and chalk of the 1800's because of the growths in technology. Now because of the internet and social networking education is changing again as we are able to connect with teachers and education opportunities all around the world.

2.2.2. Technology has changed how teachers must teach as their students have a growing interest in technology as well as a great ability to work with the continually developing technologies of today.

2.3. Connections

3. Cognitive Load: A learning theory

3.1. Basic Priniples

3.1.1. The brain works with 3 different levels of memory: the working memory, the long-term memory and schema (EDIT 202, 2013).

3.1.2. This theory looks at how the working memory can become over or under loaded (EDIT 202, 2013).

3.1.3. If someones working memory is over or under loaded they will not learn (EDIT 202, 2013).

3.1.4. Is a part of the learning theory of cognitivism (EDIT 202, 2013).

3.2. Implications for education

3.2.1. In education cognitive load can be related to the students and the educator.

3.2.2. An educator must watch that he/she does not become overloaded because when they do the quality of the instruction tends to deteriorate (Feldon, 2007).

3.2.3. A student's learning is effected when they are under or over loaded. As a teacher you must do what you can to try and have each student at an optimal level of stimulation so they are able to learn and use their working memory. Every student will respond differently to the cognitive load in the environment (Feldon, 2007). Examples - Create presentations that are simple and clear and will not overload students. - Give a student a squeeze toy or a sensory stimulant if they are underloaded during a lecture. - Increase or decrease the difficulty of a reading or an assignment if it is too stimulating or not stimulating enough based off of schemas the student already has.

3.3. Connections

3.3.1. As experiences affect how a child learns in a constructivist environment, past experiences may also affect if a child is under or over loaded.

4. Constructivism: A learning theory

4.1. Basic Principles

4.1.1. Learning done in the realm of constructivism is based on a person's previous experiences in life and the meaning/ reflection the person took away from that experience (EDIT 202, 2013).

4.1.2. Every person will learn differently because everyone has experienced life differently (EDIT 202, 2013).

4.1.3. New knowledge builds off old knowledge (EDIT 202, 2013).

4.2. Implications for education

4.2.1. The teacher works with the students to create learning and does not "teach at" the students (Qiong, 2010)

4.2.2. The teacher acts as a guide to the students in asking directing questions and helping students make connections to previous experiences. As well the teacher will assist the student reflecting on what they have learned by asking tough and thoughtful questions (Qiong, 2010).

4.2.3. The learning in the classroom is not a fast process as the students are to take the time to reflect on their learning and not just absorb the input of knowledge and move on (Qiong, 2010).

4.3. Connections

5. Connectivism: A learning theory

5.1. Basic Priniples

5.1.1. The source of ones knowledge no longer is in the head, knowledge is found in society in human and non-human sources (Dawley, 2009).

5.1.2. When you want to learn something you must connect to a source of knowledge. As one connects to more and more sources of knowledge, a knowledge network is developed (EDIT 202, 2013).

5.1.3. This theory is centralized around the digital era because now, with the internet, people can easily connect with sources of knowledge worldwide (EDIT 202, 2013).

5.2. Implications for education

5.2.1. The teacher acts more as a facilitator.

5.2.2. The role of the teacher will change as they no longer have to worry about having each and every student know the information, the student just must have the ability to connect to the information and know wether or not the answer is valid (Dawley, 2009).

5.2.3. Educators must learn how to use technologies such as social networking site and blogs as a way to enhance learning and make it more relevant for the twenty-first century learner (Dyrud,2012).

5.3. Connections

5.3.1. I believe that connectivism can be connected to media ecology, as we have seen this learning theory emerge because of the technology that is now present in today's society.

6. References AmpliVox. (Producer) (2011). Top 10 reasons to use technology in education: ipad, tablet, computer, listening centers [Web]. Retrieved from Dawley, L. L. (2009). Social network knowledge construction: emerging virtual world pedagogy. On The Horizon, 17(2), 109-121. Dyrud, M. A. (2012). Posting, Tweeting, and Rejuvenating the Classroom. Business Communication Quarterly, 75(1), 61-63. EDIT 202. (2013). Educational Technology Learning Theory [PDF document]. Retrieved from eClassPlus online: Feldon, D. F. (2007). Cognitive Load and Classroom Teaching: The Double-Edged Sword of Automaticity. Educational Psychologist, 42(3), 123-137. Graham, C. R., Borup, J. J., & Smith, N. B. (2012). Using TPACK as a Framework to Understand Teacher Candidates' Technology Integration Decisions. Journal Of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(6), 530-546. Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2009). What Is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge?. Contemporary Issues In Technology And Teacher Education (CITE Journal), 9(1), 60-70. Media Ecology Association. (2013). What is media ecology? Definitions. Retrieved from Peacock, K. (2013). TPACK and philosophy of teachnology [Google document]. Retrieved from eClassPlus online: Qiong, J. (2010). A Brief Study on the Implication of Constructivism Teaching Theory on Classroom Teaching Reform in Basic Education. International Education Studies, (2). Wikipedia. ( 2012, March 27). Social construction of technology. Retrieved from

7. TPACK: A learning theory

7.1. Basic Principles

7.1.1. TPACK is a framework that has expanded off of Shulman's framework that involved pedagogical and content knowledge. TPACK has added the element of technology into the knowledge domains. The framework looks at integrating technology into teaching" (Mishra & Koehler, 2009)

7.1.2. There are 7 domains to TPACK, pedagogical knowledge, content knowledge and technology knowledge and a combination of two and all three of these domains (Graham, Borup, & Smith, 2012).

7.1.3. The technology considered in this framework is digital technology Graham, Borup, & Smith, 2012).

7.1.4. Use to evaluate lessons (Peacock, 2013).

7.1.5. The TPACK framework must be considered in terms of its context.

7.2. Connections

7.2.1. TPACK is a way for teachers to think about how a digital technology will influence their classroom

8. Philosophy of Teachnology

8.1. Basic facts

8.1.1. Ones philosophy based around the use of technology in the classroom and how technology should be integrated in how one teaches (Peacock, 2013).

8.1.2. Like a philosophy of teaching everyones philosophy of teachnology should be unique to them (Peacock, 2013)

8.1.3. Ones philosphy of teachnology is likely to change as one develops and evolves as an educator

8.1.4. There are many possible ways to think about technology in the classroom.The way one thinks about and sees the use of technology in the classroom will influence their philosophy of teachnology. Watch this video to see one persons opinion of the benefit of technology in a classroom (AmpliVox, 2011).

8.2. Connections

8.2.1. Ones' philosophy of teachnology should take into account the information provided by TPACK

8.2.2. When creating your philosophy of teachnology an educator must consider how the use of technology will effect their instruction, the learning they prompt in the classroom and how they interact with the students. This makes a connection to all the learning theories because depending on what theory a teacher is using to base their instruction will affect how technology is used.