Educational Theories

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Educational Theories by Mind Map: Educational Theories

1. Learning Theories

1.1. Cognitive Load Theory

1.1.1. PRINCIPLES there are three types of cognitive loads: Germane: load related to deep processing, and constructions and activation of schema. Intrinsic: the resources needed to complete the task despite external stimuli. Extraneous: the resources needed to process external stimuli not related to the learning task. new sensory information is held in working memory, and if processed effectively, moved to long term memory. we can only retain 7 items at once in our working memory. schemas are activated when our working memory interacts with our long term memory storage. information can be lost from working memory through 'decay' if the information is not maintained and developed over time.

1.1.2. IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION the most important information should be delivered in small chunks so that cognitive overload is not experienced by the student. students can then use the 'chunking' technique to combine smaller units of information into more meaningful larger units. students should be encouraged to take part in 'elaborative rehearsal' in order to encourage the maintenance of information in working memory. educators need to consider the layout of the information - it needs to be easily navigated by the student in a way that does not strain their working memory too much. information can be presented using a variety of visuals, that way overload is not experienced through extensive text. repetition should be encouraged so that automaticity can develop.

1.1.3. MAIN THEORISTS & CONTRIBUTORS G.A. Miller (1920-1912) John Sweller

1.2. Constructivism

1.2.1. PRINCIPLES there are two subsets of constructivism: individual constructivists & social/situated constructivists. Jean Piaget = Individual Constructivist (1st Wave Constructivism) Lev Vygotsky = Social/Situated Constructivist (2nd Wave Constructivism) today constructivism is viewed as being a blend between individual and social/situated. a changing body of knowledge is constructed by the individual and their interactions with others. learning is the active construction or restructuring of prior knowledge - making connections to prior knowledge. teaching is meant to guide students towards a more complete understanding. learners need to be self-directed, creative and innovative. meta-cognitive abilities are necessary in order to successfully direct learning.

1.2.2. IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING students need to be encouraged to identify how the learning activity is helping them gain knowledge - or even if it is. reflective and autonomous thinking needs to be attained. problems should be presented to students that are ill-structured, conceptual, and problem solving oritened. This will all prmote open discussion between a group of learners. teachers should use mitiple representations of content through techniques such as analogies, metaphors an examples in order to forge connections in the learner. teachers should make their own thinking processes clear to the learners. numerous forms of assessment should be implemented to assess the products AND processes AND of the students' thinking.

1.2.3. MAIN THEORISTS & CONTRIBUTORS Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980) Lev Vygotsky (1986 - 1934)

1.3. Connectivism

1.3.1. PRINCIPLES knowledge is distributed across a network of connections. learning is the ability to navigate the different networks that you are a part of. what we know is the connections between the neurons in our brain that we have made through experience. our brain can form over 100 trillion connections between neurons, and these connections make up everything that we know. the 'process' is more important than the 'content'. maintaining and nurturing connections is essential to learning. connectivist activities ensure that all information is current and up to date. the action of making decisions is considered a learning process in and of itself - our perception of a situation makes the connections we make relevant to a particular situation. effective learning takes place when connections are built between different 'nodes' and information sources.

1.3.2. IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING educators need to provide resources that enable the studnts to forge connections with experiences individuals pertaining to a topic (such as with a PLN). activities should encourage the use and citing of numerous and reliable resources that the students can hopefully return to in the future.

1.3.3. MAIN THEORISTS & CONTRIBUTORS Stephen Downes George Siemens

2. Technology Theories

2.1. Media Ecology

2.1.1. PRINCIPLES technology incluences society as well as other walks of life. social change is brought about through communication technology. human outlook is changed by the media through hot or cool media. hot media is intense, and involves little involvement by the audience - ex) movies and photographs. cool media is less intense and requires involvement by the audience - ex) a comic; much is left to the imagination of the individual. "the media is the message" - McLuhan media ties the world together. the Media Ecology Association (MEA) deals with research and application of media. technology controls the form, speed and quantity of information we are in the electronic era. also known as Technological Determinism.

2.1.2. MAIN THEORISTS & CONTRIBUTORS Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980) Neil Postman (1931-2003)

2.2. SCOT

2.2.1. PRINCIPLES human actions and decisions shape technology. how we use technology is embedded in its social context. there are many ways to construct the same technology. as technologies are developed closure occurs when interpretive and design fleibility collapse. There are two types of closure: Rhetoric Closure: people see the problem as solved, and therefore alternative designs are no longer researched. Redefinition of the Problem: when a deign is in the middle of various conflicts, a new 'problem' presented, which can be considered solved by the design. Ex) After technical problems of the tire were overcome, there were considered aesthetically unpleasaing, so they considered the tire to fix the 'speed problem' of winning races. believers of SCOT value 'Symmetry' which says that individuals should use the same kind of explanation when describing different success or failures in the history of technology. ex) when evaluating a technology created many decades ago, it is not right to focus on the failures of the design and how we have solved those problems today while holding our newer technologies up to a higher standard. technological developments should not be linearly analyzed. different solutions to different problems are related to needs and concerns of specific groups. also known as Technological Constructivism.

2.2.2. MAIN THEORISTS & CONTRIBUTORS Thomas Hughes Weibe Bijker Pinch

2.3. Both theories emphasize that technology is an integral part of our lives and is a very necessary part of education. In order for effective learning to take place, technologies need to be effectively used in the classroom.



3.1.1. the three types of knowledge that teachers are required to have to remain relevant in today's society are: technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge. Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) knowing a variety of practices and methods that result in effective learning. having an understanding of the aim of the curriculum. is the determining factor in how well aspects such as class management and student interest levels are attended to. is achieved when the teacher has a good understanding of numerous learning theories and how they can be applied to the classroom. Content Knowledge (CK) knowledge about the actual content that the teacher is teaching. Develops as teachers devote more time to learning the material. varies largely from grade level to grade level. expectations of teacher content knowledge vary from grade level to grade level - lower grade teachers have a more general content knowledge while senior high and post secondary teachers should have deep content knowledge. involves knowing how your subject interacts with other subject areas and concepts. having immense content knowledge will result in having command for the subject. Teachers will be more prepared for class discussions and inquiries. Technological Knowledge (TK) knowledge about the different technologies that are available to us - internet, smartboards, webdesign, etc. is not only being aware of technologies, but actually being able to operate them in numerous ways. can often be a way for teachers to remain relevant to their students who usually have vast technological knowledge.

3.1.2. the interplay of all three types of knowledge is what is known as TPACK.

3.1.3. also emphasizes the importance of the intersections between these three aspects. The intersection of all three components: TPACK, is necessary for teachers to be successful. Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) knowledge of various technologies and how they can effectively be implemented in the classroom. being aware that pedagogical choices can change due to new and upcoming technologies. examples include using technologies that keep track of class attendance, student grades and other teacher-student comments. knowing that different technologies will better tailor different types of learners. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) knowledge of which teaching techniques are best suited for certain content to be learned. knowing what the students bring to the learning environment and how this can enhance or dimniish the learning experience. this type of knowledge allows teachers to adapt to unexpected learning situations in the classroom - when lessons may not go over as well as planned - you are able to quickly think of new ways to represent the information. Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) knowledge about how subject matter can be altered through the use of effective and prevalent technologies. often makes learning a more enjoyable process since teachers with this knowledge will have interesting technologies closely related to the information being taught. often enable the successful understanding of conceptual topics that are difficult to express on paper.

3.1.4. keeping these aspects in mind will produce an enhanced learning environment.


3.2.1. the interplay between these elements has always been regarded as being important throughout history.

3.2.2. with the recent influx in the number of technologies, the interplay with technology has become a critical aspect of academic research.

3.2.3. Lee Shulman

3.2.4. Matthew J. Koehler

3.2.5. Punya Mishra

4. Philosophy of Teachnology

4.1. a teachers' belief about the importance of technology and how it should be incorporated into the classroom for successful learning.

4.2. revolves around the teachers view of the role of technology.

4.3. the precurssor of the philosophy of teachnology is the philosophy of teaching.

4.3.1. a philosophy of teaching is a teachers' belief about the purpose of education and how it should be carried out in the classroom. by adding their views about technology, a philosophy of teaching can successfully be transformed into a philosophy of teachnology.

4.4. a philosphy of teaching is necessary for the 21st century learners that are facing educators today.

4.4.1. most students know more about technology than their teachers, and therefore teachers need to have a grounded view of technology and how they would like to effectively use it.

4.5. should include not only how learning can take place through technologies, but also how students should take precautions to protect themselves and others through technology use.

4.6. having a philosophy of teachnology that embraces technology will create a learning environment that provides students with numerous alternatives for learning material.

4.6.1. a well rounded philosophy will result in the different learning styles of students being satisfied.