Theories

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Theories by Mind Map: Theories

1. Learning Theories

1.1. Connectivism

1.1.1. Basic Principles: (Siemens, 2004)

1.1.1.1. Learning occurs when people can make connections across nodes

1.1.1.1.1. Connecting into the nodes improve our learning

1.1.1.1.2. Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.

1.1.1.1.3. Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.

1.1.1.2. Learning has an end goal:

1.1.1.2.1. To do something

1.1.1.3. Knowing where to find information is more important then know the information itself

1.1.1.4. Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.

1.1.1.5. Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.

1.1.1.6. Active Learning

1.1.2. Implications for Education: (Stranack, 2012)

1.1.2.1. Can make courses online

1.1.2.2. Little to no course reading. Students expected to find resources of relevance to their personal learning goals

1.1.2.3. Use of PLNs: Student can develop her or his own PLN, using open education resources freely available on the Internet (seeking), student blogs (for sense-making), and Twitter and Delicious (or Diigo) for building connections and sharing resources and reflections

1.1.2.4. Students can share what they found with the class, and blog about their reflections on what they drew from the resources

1.1.2.5. Teacher as facilator (not as lecturer)

1.1.2.5.1. Less of an unequal power distribution between teacher and students

1.1.2.6. Assessing the process not the product

1.1.2.7. Students should learn if decided for themselves if a piece of information is credible

1.2. Constructivism

1.2.1. Basic Principles:

1.2.1.1. Learning is building connections by active interacting with the environment

1.2.1.1.1. Personal experiences affect one's learning

1.2.1.2. Active Learning

1.2.1.2.1. Children actively constructing their own meaning making

1.2.1.3. Collaborative Learning

1.2.1.3.1. Learn by working with others

1.2.1.4. Authentic tasks

1.2.1.4.1. Students learn in the real world environments

1.2.2. Implications for Education (Watson & Konicek, 1990):

1.2.2.1. Find out students current conceptual beliefs before teaching

1.2.2.2. Teacher as a facilator

1.2.2.2.1. Structure experiences to challenge children's erroneous beliefs

1.2.2.3. Stress relevance: Connect new concepts to children's everyday life.

1.2.2.4. Have the children make connections.

1.2.2.4.1. Children who are asked to predict the results of their {science] experiments are more willing to change their thinking than are children who function as passive observers.

1.2.2.5. Reflection

1.2.2.5.1. Children need to consider their current beliefs and information encountered in their new experience

1.3. Cognitive Load Theory

1.3.1. Basic Principles

1.3.1.1. There are different kinds of memories: working, long term

1.3.1.2. Learning occurs when information transfers into the long term memory

1.3.1.3. Working memory has finite amount of information it can hold at once (7+/- 2). Long term memory can hold infinite amount of information.

1.3.1.4. Total cognitive load is affected by extraneous cognitive load, intrinsic cognitive load and germane cognitive load.

1.3.1.4.1. Extraneous cognitive load: is imposed by the manner in which information is presented to the learner. Eg) Colourful websites, with lots of moving parts and flashing buttons and advertisements

1.3.1.4.2. Intrinsic cognitive load: Imposed ny the learning task e.g.) difficultlylevel of a math question

1.3.1.4.3. Germane cognitive load: Devoted to processing information, constructing and automating schemas (load used for forming new schemas)

1.3.2. Implications for Education:

1.3.2.1. teachers should be aware of the cognitive load of their students.

1.3.2.1.1. They should try to decrease the externeous load of the students and increase the germane cognitive load. This can be done by: (Camp, 2010)

1.3.2.1.2. Chunking information, such as teaching similar information together and using mnemonic devices and conceptual maps (e.g. Prexzi) can help with working memory

2. Technological Theories

2.1. Media Ecology

2.1.1. Basic Principles:

2.1.1.1. Technology influences society (opposite of SCOT)

2.1.1.2. Study of media environments

2.1.1.2.1. Study of complex communication systems as environments

2.1.2. Implications for Education:

2.1.2.1. New technologies will influence classrooms/ the way things are done in the school

2.1.2.2. Eg) The computers provided teachers whole new ways of interacting with their students classrooms (email, twitter, even just typed rather then written letters home)

2.2. Social Construction of Technology (SCOT)

2.2.1. Basic Principles:

2.2.1.1. Society and human interaction influences technology (opposite of Media Ecology)

2.2.1.2. Eg) Technology in agriculture. The technology fills a need for farmers

2.2.1.3. SCOT is also a methodology (not just theory) it formalizes step and principles to follow when one wants to analyze the causes of technological failures and successes.

2.2.2. Implications for Education:

2.2.2.1. Needs in classrooms/ schools will affect the educational technologies created

2.3. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)

2.3.1. Interaction of three forms of knowledge in teaching

2.3.1.1. (a) Content Knowledge (CK)

2.3.1.1.1. Teachers knowledge about the content they are teaching

2.3.1.2. (b) Pedagogical knowledge (PK)

2.3.1.2.1. Knowledge about how to teach

2.3.1.3. (c) Technological knowledge (TK)

2.3.1.3.1. Knowledge about technological tools

2.3.1.4. subcategories

2.3.1.4.1. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)

2.3.1.4.2. Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK)

2.3.1.4.3. Technology Content Knowledge (TCK)

2.3.1.4.4. Technology Pedagogy Content Knowledge (TPCK)

2.4. Philosophy of Teachnology

2.4.1. Teacher's personal beliefs on the role of technology in the classroom. How does technology fit in with the teacher's roles? Should technology be used? How and in what ways should technology be used?